Unit 1: People and TermsPeople:Christopher Columbus- An Italian seafarer who sailed west for the Spanish in search of a route to India. He discovered the New World, landing in the Bahamas. He had a huge impact, entwining Europe, Africaand the Americas for centuries to follow. Conquistador- Spanish conquerors who swept over the America, mainly for God, Glory and Gold. They extinguished the civilizations of South America and Mexico.Aztecs- A great civilization in Mexico, defeated in 1521 by Cortes. Their capital city was Tenochtitlan, whose spectacles amazed the Spaniards upon arrival.Incas- Civilization in South America, more specifically in Peru. Crushed by Francisco Pizarro in 1532.Mayans- Advanced civilization in Central America.Sir Walter Raleigh- Founded the colony at Roanoke, North Carolina in 1585, the half-brother of Sir Humphrey Gilbert. When he returned in 1589, the colony had mysteriously vanished.James I- Granted a charter to the Virginia Company of London, whose voyage ultimately led to the founding of Jamestown.Lord De La Warr- Arrived in Virginia in 1610, carrying out orders from the Virginia Company to declare war on the Indians. Committed atrocities among the Powhatans.John Rolfe- Married Pocahontas after the First Anglo-Powhatan War, the first interracial union. Known as the father of tobacco, he perfected the cultivation of the plant.Lord Baltimore- Founded Maryland in 1634 as a Catholic haven away from Protestant England. Created a feudal domain and prospered with tobacco.James Oglethorp- A founder of the colony of Georgia, he was an energetic leader of the debtors’ land.King Henry VIII- Broke away from the Roman Catholic Church in the 1530s, creating the Church of England.Puritans- Reformers who wanted to purify English Christianity.Pilgrims- Separatists who wanted to break away from the Church of England all together.William Bradford- A popular scholar who was elected the governor of Plymouth thirty times.John Winthrop- The first governor of the Massachusetts Bay colony. The colony prospered under him for almost 20 years.Anne Hutchinson- A great arguer who defied Puritan authority. She was convicted of high heresy and banished.
Roger Williams- A separatist who urged the leaders of Massachusetts to break away from the Church ofEngland. He defied the Puritan government and was banished, moving to Rhode Island. He opened the doors of Rhode Island to anyone and everyone. Thomas Hooker- A Boston Puritan who traveled west into Connecticut, landing in Hartford.