Unit 3: People and TermsChapters 11 & 12:People:1.Thomas Jefferson:Third president of the United States, leader of the Democratic-Republican party. In office from 1801-1809, and during that time, he passed the naturalization law, purchased the Louisiana Territory and created the hated Embargo Act. Largely a pacifist and did his best to avoid war with Britain.2.John Adams:Second president of the United States, last federalist president. Passed the judiciary act of 1801, creating new judiciary positions in order to entrench the federalistsin the judiciary branch. “Midnight judges.” His failure to send the letters of the act on thelast night of his presidency helped to cause Marbury v. Madison.3.Aaron Burr:Vice president under Jefferson during his first term. After Jefferson’s first term, he engaged in many treasonous acts such as threatening the secession of differentsections of the U.S. He was put on trial in 1806 for treason, but was let go and fled to Europe where he continued to plot against the United States.4.Alexander Hamilton:Exposed Aaron Burr’s conspiracies and was challenged to a duel. Hamilton did not believe in duels, but met Aaron and was killed.5.Albert Gallatin:Secretary of the Treasury under Thomas Jefferson. As able as Hamilton, he was successful in reducing the national debt as he saw it as a burden.6.Chief Justice John Marshall:Chief justice of the Supreme Court from 1801-1835. He was appointed by John Adams during his last days in office and withheld many Federalist ideas and principals in the judiciary branch. His rulings strengthened and legitimized the authority of the federal government.7.William Marbury:Named justice of the peace of the District of Columbia by John Adams in the Judiciary Act of 1801. However, his letter that gave him the position was left on Adams’ desk and the new Secretary of State, James Madison, kept his letter and hence his position. He brought his grievances to the Supreme Court in Marbury v. Madison.8.James Madison: Secretary of States under Thomas Jefferson and the fourth president of the United States from 1809-1817. During his time as Secretary of State, Madison had todefend himself in Marbury v. Madison. As president, he had to deal with the War of 1812 as well as the Embargo Act, which was reduced to the Non-Intercourse Act and then to Macon’s Bill No. 2. He was not as aggressive as Jefferson and was largely taken advantage of by Congress and his cabinet members.9.Napoleon Bonaparte:Dictator of France from 1804-1815. He sold the Louisiana Territoryto the United States in 1803 and captured American ships during the Embargo. He falsely
decreed that his trade restrictions would be lifted if the British lifted theirs, luring the United States into an embargo exclusively against the British through Macon’s Bill No. 2.