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notes for straighterline physics labs.pdf - Lab 1:...

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Lab 1: Measurement & Uncertainty-Uncertainty- helps account for possible errors in the results uncertainty should behypothesized.-Half least count rule- the least count is the smalled gradation on a measuring device. (i.e1 mm on a ruler)-Vernier caliper- a useful tool for measuring length with higher precision-Rulers or measuring tapes cannot record diameter (or dimensions like it)-A caliper works by using two scales,-the first is fixed and referred to as the major scale.-The smaller scale, or minor scale, is then used to provide a higher degree ofaccuracy beyond half least count-Look at the minor scale until one of the tick marks matches up exactly with a tickmark on the major scale-Lower tick mark + (# least ct. Spaces * least ct. incr.) = measurement-Systematic error- occurs when the experiment set-up causes results to skew consistentlyhigher or lower than expected, and affects measurement accuracy-Random error- attributable to factors like human reaction time and other stochasticprocesses and affects measurement precision.-Replicable- an experiment much be replicable to lead to valid theories. AKA theprocedure must always be diligently recorded, adn the experiment must provideaccurate, precise results over multiple trials-Precise results- demonstrate what you expected to happenLab 2: Kinematics-1-D kinematics- mathematically describes the motion of objects traveling in onedimension-Objects that move in straight lines include those that move horizontally orvertically with constant acceleration.-In physics a quantity can be a scalar or a vector-A scalar quantity includes only magnitude: one numerical value-The distance an object hs traveled and its speed are scalar quantities-Vector quantities include both magnitude and direction-An object’s displacement from its initial position, velocity, and accelerationare vector quantities.-The direction of a vector can be described as positive, negative, north,south, east, west, left, right, up, down, etc.-Used to describe the components of a 2-D vector-Velocity (v)- a vector quantity described as the speed of an object in a given direction.-Acceleration- changes in velocity are considered acceleration-Instantaneous- an objects speed, velocity, or acceleration at any given point in timeduring its motion-Average speed- the total distance an object travels divided by time-Average velocity- the average charge in an object’s velocity over time-Speedavg- distance/ time
-Velocityavg(vavg) = Δdisplacement/ time-Accelerationavg(aavg) = Δ velocity/ time-Kinematic equations- the equations that relate the position, velocity, and acceleration ofan object moving in a straight path-The kinematic equations will allow you to solve for each aspect of a projectilesflight: height (vertical), range (horizontal), and time of flight.

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