ISM_chapter11 - Chapter 11: Liquids, Solids, and Materials...

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Chapter 11: Liquids, Solids, and Materials 495 Chapter 11: Liquids, Solids, and Materials Teaching for Conceptual Understanding Use all three levels (macroscopic, particulate, and symbolic) of representing matter when presenting the material in Chapter 11. When describing solid ionic crystals, models of unit cells (simple body-centered, and face-centered) are a must because students need the three-dimensional visual to truly comprehend the differences among the cells. The same is true for distinguishing among the structures of diamond, graphite, and buckyballs. Much of the groundwork of this chapter has been laid in pre-college physical science courses. Again have the students tell you what they already know before you bore them by repeating the obvious. Because water is usually the only example used when discussing liquids and solids, a common misconception is that all liquids boil at 100˚C and all solids freeze at 0˚C. A related misconception is that melting points and freezing points are two different values. Another common misconception centers on the bubbles forming in boiling water. Many people think the bubbles are hydrogen and oxygen gas, which occasionally reform into steam molecules when they escape into the air. Suggestions for Effective Learning A good demonstration for sublimation is to heat a few crystals of iodine in a beaker covered with a watch glass containing ice. It is easy to see that no liquid forms but instead a purple vapor that quickly recrystallizes on the underside of the watch glass Coins on an overhead are an easy way to illustrate cubic and closest packing. A transparent ruler placed along the side provides the information students need to calculate percent of occupied area. Table 11.5 provides a good summary of types of solids, structure of the solids, the intermolecular forces holding them together, properties of the solids, and examples. Students are better able to compare and contrast the different types of solids when studied in this manner. Cooperative Learning Activities Questions, problems, and topics that can be used for Cooperative Learning Exercises and other group work are: Questions for Review and Thought from the end of this chapter: 70, 72, 84, 85, 88, 90, 100, and 108 Conceptual Challenge Problems: CP11.A, CP11.B, and CP11.C Concept mapping terms: amorphous solid, atom, boiling, boiling point, condensation, crystalline solid, equilibrium vapor pressure, evaporation, ion, liquid, molecule, network solid, normal boiling point, semiconductor, solid, superconductor, surface tension, unit cell, vapor pressure, vaporization.
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Chapter 11: Liquids, Solids, and Materials 496 End-of-Chapter Solutions for Chapter 11 Summary Problem Part 1 Answer: (a) 190 mm Hg (b) weaker (c) 30 °C (d) 32 kJ Strategy and Explanation: Given Figure 11.5, determine the vapor pressure of diethyl ether at a given temperature, determine the relative strength of intermolecular attractions between diethyl ether and ethanol, determine the temperature of diethyl ether with a given vapor pressure. Given the normal boiling point and vapor pressure of
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ISM_chapter11 - Chapter 11: Liquids, Solids, and Materials...

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