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Lec-11-Chap-07-3 - Lecture 11 Electron Configuration and...

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1 Lecture 11 Electron Configuration and the Periodic Table Atom Electron Configurations (II) 7.7 Ion Electron Configurations 7.8 Periodic Trends: Atomic Radii 7.9 Periodic Trends: Ionic Radii 7.10 Lecture 11, Knowledge and Skills • Determine the valence electrons of atoms • Determine the core electrons of atoms • Determine the electron configurations of transition metals • Determine the electron configurations of atomic ions • Recognize isoelectronic species • Explain the origin of diamagnetism, paramagnetism, and ferromagnetism • Know how magnetic properties are measured • Know the basic trends of atomic and ionic sizes • Know the fundamental reasons why atomic and ionic radii vary Valence Electrons Electrons are arranged in shells • Periodicity: Elements in the same group have equal numbers of electrons in their outer shell Outer-shell electrons = valence electrons valence electrons = electrons in incomplete shells, and – partially-filled d orbitals Inner electrons = core electrons (filled d or f core electrons (filled d or f subshells become become core electrons) core electrons) Valence electrons are the dominant factor in determining the chemistry of an element Valence Electrons Lewis dot symbols: Dots represent valence electrons Usually only used for s - and p -block elements Example: Example: nitrogen 5 valence e - (group 15) N Valence Electrons atom configuration core valence N 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 3 [He] 2 s 2 2 p 3 Mn 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3 s 2 3 p 6 3 d 5 4 s 2 [Ar] 3 d 5 4 s 2 Se 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3 s 2 3 p 6 3 d 10 4 s 2 4 p 4 [Ar] 3 d 10 4 s 2 4 p 4 Si 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3 s 2 3 p 2 [Ne] 3 s 2 3 p 2 1 2 13 14 15 16 17 18 ns 1 ns 2 ns 2 np 1 ns 2 np 2 ns 2 np 3 ns 2 np 4 ns 2 np 5 ns 2 np 6 Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar •• •• •• •• ••
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