Lec-24-Chap-10-3

# Lec-24-Chap-10-3 - The Ideal Gas Law The ideal gas law is a...

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The ideal gas law ideal gas law is a combination of: The Ideal Gas Law IDEAL GAS LAW PV = nRT or V = nRT P Boyle’s Law V 1 P fixed n and T Avogadro’s Law V n fixed P and T Charles’s Law V T fixed n and P The Ideal Gas Law STP (standard temperature and pressure) Standard T = 273.15 K (0°C = 32°F) Standard P = 1 atm At STP: One mole of a gas occupies 22.414 22.414 L (Easily calculated using V = nRT / P = ... ) Ideal Gas Law Example What volume will 2.64 mol of N 2 occupy at 0.640 atm and 31.0°C? If 3 variables are known, use the ideal gas law to get the 4 th . PV = nRT V = nRT / P V =(2.64 mol)(0.08206 L atm K -1 mol -1 )(31.0+273.15K) (0.640 atm) V = 103. L choose R so that the units will cancel change to absolute T Gases in Chemical Reactions Consider: 2 C 8 H 18 ( l ) + 25 O 2 (g) 16 CO 2 (g) + 18 H 2 O( l ) 1.0 L of O 1.0 L of O 2 and excess octane react. and excess octane react. V CO2 produced? produced? Stoichiometry and Law of combining volumes. 25 mol O 2 16 mol CO 2 ; 25 L O 2 16 L CO 2 V CO2 = 1.0 L O 2 x (16 L CO 2 / 25 L O 2 ) = 0.64 L CO 2 100. g of octane burns at STP. 100. g of octane burns at STP. V O2 required? required? 100 g octane = 0.8754 mol octane 0.8754 mol octane x (25 O 2 / 2 octane) = 10.94 mol O 2 STP volume: 1 mol occupies 22.41 L V O2 = 10.94 mol O 2 x 22.41 L/mol = 245. L Gases & Chemical Reactions Consider: 2 C 8 H 18 ( l ) + 25 O 2 (g) 16 CO 2 (g) + 18 H 2 O( l ) V O2 = nRT = (125. mol)(62.36 L torr K -1 mol -1 )(298.2 K) P (752 torr) What What V of O of O

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