ATP Synthase Study Guide

ATP Synthase Study Guide - sensors send a signal to the...

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ATP Synthase Study Guide 1. What is the prime purpose of the mitochondria To form ATP by linking ADP and Pi. 2. Please make sure you know how ATP synthase works – know how it uses the chemiosmotic gradient created by the electron transport chain to form ATP. The enzyme complex ATP synthase synthesizes ATP, using the energy of the proton gradient generated by the electron transport chain. 3. How is ATP synthase similar to a water wheel? The mechanism can be likened to a water wheel, where the flow of protons resembles a flow of water downhill, and the turning of the wheel is the turning of ADP toward phosphate to cause the bond to form. 4. What stimulates the electron transport chain to speed up? The level of ADP causes the electron transport chain to speed up – it indicates that the athlete is using ATP at a higher rate. 5. How does carbon dioxide increase breathing? Sensors in the athlete’s cardiovascular system detect an increase in CO2. The
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Unformatted text preview: sensors send a signal to the brain via the nervous system that more oxygen is needed and as a consequence breathing speeds up. 6. What is meant by the term uncoupled mitochondria? Uncoupled mitochondria are found in nearly every tissue. Uncoupling increases the body’s metabolic rate enabling the body to “burn” more energy and thus lead to potential weight loss. 7. How is mitochondrial uncoupling a suspected cause of atherosclerosis? It is possible that uncoupling proteins cause cells to move oxygen through the system and this causes oxidative damage, high blood pressure and atherosclerosis. The mitochondria eventually become defective. 8. How does the body counteract oxidative damage due to inefficient mitochondria? Fruits and vegetables provide you with the antioxidants you need to counteract the oxidative damage that can occur with uncoupling of the ETC from ATP production....
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This note was uploaded on 04/19/2008 for the course APK 4125 taught by Professor Drenning during the Spring '08 term at University of Florida.

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