PSYC380 Exam 1 SP2016 Study Guide

PSYC380 Exam 1 SP2016 Study Guide - PSYC380 Exam 1 Study...

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PSYC380 Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 1: Abnormal Behavior in Historical Context How does classical conditioning lead to learning a certain response? o Pavlov’s dog - a learning process that occurs through associations between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus o the stimulus to be conditioned (such as the sound of a bell) is paired with an unconditioned stimulus (a reinforcer such as food.) The two are paired again and again, until the subject is 'conditioned' to expect food when hearing a bell. The subject gets the food when it hears the bell, no matter what other behaviors it exhibits. o What are the roles of the conditioned (neutral) stimulus, the unconditioned stimulus, the conditioned response and the unconditioned response? Conditioned stimulus – BELL, before associating with food, brings no response, but eventually bell causes conditioned response to salivate Unconditioned stimulus – FOOD, elicits unconditioned response- causes natural reaction of unconditioned response to salivate Responses are usually the same How does operant conditioning lead to learning? o Certain behavior leads to consequences which can increase or decrease behavior, reinforcement is presented only when the subject responds in the desired manner to a stimulus. o Reinforcement increases behavior, punishment decreases behavior o Positive gives, negative takes away Pleasant Consequence Aversive Consequence Addition Positive Reinforcement -after cleaning room, get $$ Positive Punishment -late to class, teacher yells - Writing the name of a misbehaving student on the chalkboard Removal Negative Punishment -take away water bowl, after pee insides -isolating dog that snaps Negative Reinforcement -beeping sound til you put on your seatbelt -Removing collar pressure on a dog's neck when it walks next to you o Primary reinforcement does not have to be taught, we already desire food o Secondary reinforcement gained reinforcement by being paired with primary, trying to avoid shock o negative reinforcement could lead to a maladaptive behavior feels bad about self, purges and feels better, so purging increases Chapter 2: An Integrative Approach to Psychopathology Define the concepts of equifinality and multifinality and give examples of each in relation to the development of psychopathology Equifinality – a given outcome (behavior, disorder) has multiple causal pathways, behavior or disorder may have several causes o X1, x2, x3 all lead to y Multifinality – a given causal agent may lead to a diversity of outcomes (behaviors, disorders)
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o X can lead to y1, y2, y3 diathesis-stress model - individuals inherit tendencies to express certain traits or behaviors, which may then be activated under conditions of stress , predisposition, environmental stress o Each inherited tendency is a diathesis, a condition that makes someone susceptible to developing a disorder heritability - the extent to which genetic individual differences contribute to
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