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1Chapter 8: How the Parts Fit TogetherPersonality structure:oStatic, enduring, long-termdivisions of personality into areas according tothe stable and distinct functions, processes, or other qualities ofpersonality.oProvides an opposition to personality dynamicsoPsychodynamic theory:abiding patterns in the flaux of processes.Interested in the consciousness and self-awareness and emphasize whatis conscious or not.oTrait theory: structure can take on a math meaning. A group of large,important, enduring traits. Emphasize personality types are based oncombinations of trait dimensions.oPersonality theory:structure was the organization or patterning ofpersonality’s elements.oSystems-orientated theory:look at ways of employing the differentstructural divisions in an integrated fashion.oDifferent theoretical perspectives call for different kinds of structuraldivisions of the system.oMost common way personality is divided is according to its majorfunction.Maps of the US:oTo understand how we can use different structural models to describe thesame personality phenomena, think of how we can look at different waysof looking at the US.
2Generalities about Structures:oMultiple valid maps are possible for complex systemsoDifferent maps provide opportunities to emphasize different attributesabout the systemoNot all maps may be equally validoThere are many ways of dividing personality on a structural basis.Criteria for Structural Divisions:oComprehensiveness:divisions cover everything or nearly so. Covers all-important parts. Not missing anything (pointing out flaws in theories).oScientific foundation:each division should be scientifically defensible.Occur in healthy personality and emotions are observable. Each divisionshould describe a scientifically plausible division of personality.oDistinctiveness:each division should be unique, different from the rest.Should not overlap. Motives & emotions are distinct, moods & emotionsare not. Divisions divide areas that are different from each other.oUtility: the division should help with a scientific project. Dividepersonality into few large, useful areas. Less than 3: too simplistic. Morethan 7: too complex/undermine particular areas.Big 2 and Big 3:oEmerged from a scientific debate.oCattell challenged Eysenck by creating a test with 16 factors instead of 2.oCattell and Eysenck debated whether there were 2 or 16 factors.oCattell’s 16 factors corresponded well to Eysenck’s 2 dimensionsbecame known as the big/super factors.oBig 2: Eysenck’s 2 factor model:Neuroticism – StabilityExtraversion – IntroversionoBig 3: (vs. Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire)Eysenck’s model:added psychoticism– tender mildnessPsychoticism:solitary, uncaring, troublesome
3Big 5 Model:oPurpose: organize traits. Has a unique procedure for selecting test items.