Learning - Habituation gradual fading of innate response to a stimulus that proves to be safe\/irrelevant ex Learn to not be startled Aplysia= marine

Learning - Habituation gradual fading of innate response to...

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Habituation: gradual fading of innate response to a stimulus that proves to be safe/irrelevant; ex. Learn to not be startledAplysia= marine snailWhen aimal relaxed= spread out so maximally effectiveWill retract gill if touched (because very fragile)This can be habituated (don’t need to know details)—> need to know less neurotransmitter is released at synapse between sensory and motor neurons; when animal resumes responding neurotransmitter released at previous levelsSensitization involves showing a response to a previous irrelevant stimulus b/c something relevant occurred shortly before; ex. Octopus presented with food; present with previously neutral stimulus and it attacks red card b/c of previous recent experience; MUST be short durationClassical conditioning/associative learningUS- foodUR-salivationCS- bellCR- conditioned responsesalivation to bellStimulus (CS) can come to serve as a cue that a reward (US is about to occur) TIME matters; CS must not end with or persists beyond the UCS; BeforeoFood- salivationoBell-no salivationConditioningoBell, food, salivationAfteroBell- salivationGeneral finding: Strength of condition depends on:oConsistency with Us follows CSoAmount of time between (sooner better)oRelevance or strength of the US to animal at time presented (Ex. Food deprivation)oDoes NOT depend upon the nature of CSGarcia-“these results are about as reasonable as finding shit in a cuckoo clock”- VERY SURPRISING to research community; truly novel findings are often rejected at firstRatcliff
Vampire bat only eats blood; no such thing as poisonous blood so less able to experience taste aversionAsynchronous toxin- time is completely different for toxin and new testing foodOperant condition (associative learning)- trial and errorSkinner boxoRat placed in skinner box and wander around and eventually maybe hit lever; food delivered; would learn to press lever for foodoAvoid lever if causes shockPractical applicationoGiant pouched rattaught to detect mines; deminingTrained to associate sound with the scent of TNTToo light to set off mineWill scratch at surface if smell TNTAlso trained to detect TB oWasps remember odor; go bonkers with odorLatent learningNot reinforcedExperiment MetzgaroPut white-footed mice in complex environment and let mice walk aroundno reinforcementoWhen put back, with predator (owl), mice with previous opportunity to explore more likely to surviveDigger waspslearn environment landmarks to navigate (if move landmarks,they won’t be able to find nest)Observational (cultural) learningUsed to be debateFirst described by Jane Goodallchimapanzee- termite fishingoTake long sticks, poke into termite mount, and pull stick outBlue tit- open milk bottles and birds would drink creamoOne blue tit bird learned to pierce aluminum cap and pealed back capsoWithin months, all were doing ito

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