PsychSci4e_lecppt_ch12 - Gazzaniga Heatherton Halpern...

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Chapter 12 Social Psychology ©2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. Gazzaniga • Heatherton • Halpern FOURTH EDITION Psychological Science Psychological Science
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Chapter 12: Social Psychology What happened at Abu Ghraib? The case of Abu Ghraib challenges many commonsense notions about human nature and forces us to consider questions about humanity’s dark side Is something wrong with people who humiliate, beat, rape, torture, and murder others? Or are they just normal people caught up in overwhelming situations that shape their actions?
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12.1 How Do We Form Our Impressions of Others? Identify the goals of social psychology. Discuss the role that nonverbal behavior plays in impression formation. Define the fundamental attribution error and the actor/observer discrepancy. Describe the functions and self-fulfilling effects of stereotypes. Distinguish between prejudice and discrimination. Distinguish between ingroups and outgroups. Discuss strategies to inhibit stereotypes and reduce prejudice.
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How Do We Form Our Impressions of Others? Social psychology is concerned with how people influence other people’s thoughts, feelings, and actions We constantly make social judgments and automatically classify people into social categories Social psychologists have shown that our long- term evaluations of people are heavily influenced by our first impressions
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Nonverbal Actions and Expressions Affect Our First Impressions How you initially feel about others will be determined mostly by their nonverbal behavior (i.e., facial expressions, gestures, mannerisms, and movements) Thin slices of behavior: Seconds-long observations offer powerful cues for impression formation Participants viewed soundless 30-second film clips of college teachers lecturing and then were asked to rate the lecturers’ teaching ability Ratings corresponded very highly with the ratings given by the instructors’ students (Ambady & Rosenthal, 1993)
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Facial Expressions The first thing we notice about another person is the face Human babies less than an hour old prefer to look at and will track a picture of a human face rather than a blank outline of a head (Morton & Johnson, 1991) The face communicates information such as emotional state, interest, and distrust Eye contact is important in social situations, though how we perceive it depends on our culture
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We Make Attributions About Others We constantly try to explain other people’s motives, traits, and preferences Attributions: explanations for events or actions, including other people’s behavior We are motivated to draw inferences in part by a basic need for both order and predictability Just World hypothesis: When bad things happen to people, we make sense of it by blaming the victim—victims must have done something to justify what happened to them
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Attributional Dimensions Fritz Heider distinguished between two types of attributions: Personal/internal or dispositional attributions: refer to
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