# DAY8 More Categorical Syllogisms.docx - DAY8 More...

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DAY8 More Categorical SyllogismsAll that we have studied so far this semester is foundational to understanding what logic is, whatit does, and how it can help us seek the truth through reasoning. As you know, we are in themiddle of learning a logic system called Categorical Logic, developed by Aristotle and furtherelaborated in the Middle Ages and nineteenth century. There is much more to learn aboutCategorical Logic this semester, but before we add more information to learn we need to ensurethat we have mastered the foundational information.This lecture is intended to heighten our skills in using Categorical Logic. So far, most of thecategorical syllogisms we have evaluated have been in standard form. Standard form? Thismeans, among other things, that the argument consists of standard form A, E, I, or O statements,and that they are presented with the premises above the conclusion, and specifically with themajor premise on top. As we know from experience, most people do not write and speak instandard form. So, it is important for us to keep improving our skill of analyzing writtenarguments into standard form. Why? Once an argument is placed in standard form, we canevaluate it easily (by using three-circle Venn diagrams and the four syllogistic rules).A valuable step in analyzing an argument into standard form is to identify indicator words, as weknow. Take a moment and reacquaint yourself with the two lists below. We saw these two lists atthe beginning of the semester. These lists present the most commonly used indicator words andphrases.Premise indicators:BecauseSinceAsForGiven thatInasmuch asDue toAs a result ofSeeing thatOwing to the fact thatConclusion indicators:ThereforeThusHenceSoIt follows thatWe may conclude thatErgoConsequentlyAccordingly
We may infer thatFor this reasonIt is necessarily the case thatRecall that not every argument in speech and writing has indicator words; and remember thatsome arguments will only have premise indicators but not conclusion indicators, or vice versa;and some writers and speakers will misuse indicator words. Whenever we encounter indicatorwords used well, we are wise to let them help us separate premises from conclusion. Thehomework assignment below gives multiple opportunities to refine our skill of letting indicatorwords help us analyze arguments into standard form. Once an argument is analyzed into standardform, we can easily evaluate the argument for validity

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