Intro to Modern Middle EastSept24

Intro to Modern Middle EastSept24 - Intro to Modern Middle...

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Intro to Modern Middle East Sept. 24, 2007 Construction of the Suez Canal - Completed in 1869 - Built with combo of French tech expertise, French & Eqyptian gov’t investment, + forced labor by drafted Egyptian peasants - 1000s dead in harsh conditions - Canal shortened sea route between Euro & India - Furthered Egypts strategic importance to Great Powers esp Britain Words! - Suez Canal (1869) - Khedive(=title they got from ottoman emp that indicated they were governor) Ismail (1863-1879) - Colonel Ahmad Urabi (d. 1911) Leader of the national movement who articulated the grievances of the egyptian landowners, officers, etc. He and his agents would engage in agitations on the countryside since the peasants resent the foreign protected merchants. Mobilized tons of support and imposes himself on Khedive Tawfiq. He installed him as the minister of the Military after a bunch of pressure. Raised slogan “Egypt for the Egyptians!” - Lord Cromer (Consul General 1883 – 1907) He was the defacto ruler of Egypt (called the shots). Placed Brit advisers in key Egyptian administrative area. Key areas for him were the repayment of the debt and the increase of the economy and encouraged agricultural development. Undermined industrial and educational enterprises. Dependence cotton increased under him. - Sultan Abdul Hamid II (1876-1909) - Committee of Union and Progress (1908) Lecture Cruuuud! - New political trends in ate 19 th century - Efforts on parts of elites to build modern institution - Increasing pressure on the people from expanding Christian states - Spread of literacy and the press Egypt - Egypt brought into world economy for European goods and raw materials - Role enhanced by suez canal - Suez financed by French money - Offered direct route from Mediterranean and Indian ocean via the red sea - European bankers got fiscal and legal benefits thanks to capitulation agreements - Supplied some kickass cotton to Britain - American Civil stopped flow of cotton to everyone and that rose the demand for Egyptian cotton (1860s) - Ismail took over in 1863 in mid-cotton boom - Egypt had a modest debt to European treasuries and had good credit
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Intro to Modern Middle EastSept24 - Intro to Modern Middle...

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