biology- exam2srudtguide - Study guide-Test 2 Chapters on...

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Study guide--Test 2 Chapters on Test--17, 18, 19 Mean Genes--Gender, Fat, Beauty, Introduction 1.Know all the parts of the respiratory system and their function. Its function is to exchange gasses with your environment. Diaphragm: When we inhale at rest, it contracts and flattens, increasing the volume of our chest cavity. This decreases air pressure inside the chest, causing air to flow from the nasal cavity. Nasal Cavity: Where air enters Larynx: Voice Box Trachea: Wind pipe 2.Be able to trace the flow of oxygen and carbon dioxide through the body. Oxygen from your lungs goes across membranes and crosses the alveoli into your blood via diffusion (going from higher to lower). Both oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse from the blood into tissue. 3.Know the mechanics of respiration--how does air flow in and out, how do gasses get into and out of the blood? Know where concentration of gasses is highest? lowest? Inhalation requires activation of muscles (ATP). When you inhale, air pressure gets lower, when you exhale air leaves your body. Oxygen is carried by blood, and hemoglobin is the taxi that gives it a ride. 4.Know why surface area is important. Large surface area is required to supply oxygen and remove carbon dioxide from large-bodied animals. 5.Know why hemoglobin is important. 6.Know about the effects of smoke on the respiratory system (emphysema,
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lung cancer) : Emphysema: Chronic bronchitis and asthma can lead to scar tissue in the lungs which block bronchi. This makes lungs become less elastic and overinflated, gradually increasing the size of the chest. Lung cancer: Carcinogens from particulates in tobacco smoke, which cause changes in structure of DNA molecules, are drawn deeply into the lungs. They can stay on respiratory surface for months or years without being detected. 7.Know all the parts of the circulatory system and their function: Capillaries are the functioning unit of the circulatory system.
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