Topic3.5-OtherCrystal Structures

Topic3.5-OtherCrystal Structures - OTHER CRYSTAL STRUCTURES...

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OTHER CRYSTAL STRUCTURES
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Structures of ceramic materials: How do they differ from that of metals? Point defects: How are they different from those in metals? Impurities: How are they accommodated in the lattice and how do they affect properties? Mechanical Properties: What special provisions/tests are made for ceramic materials? ISSUES TO ADDRESS
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2 Bonding: --Mostly ionic, some covalent. --% ionic character increases with difference in electronegativity. He - Ne - Ar - Kr - Xe - Rn - Cl 3.0 Br 2.8 I 2.5 At 2.2 Li 1.0 Na 0.9 K 0.8 Rb 0.8 Cs 0.7 Fr 0.7 H 2.1 Be 1.5 Mg 1.2 Sr 1.0 Ba 0.9 Ra 0.9 Ti 1.5 Cr 1.6 Fe 1.8 Ni 1.8 Zn 1.8 As 2.0 C 2.5 Si 1.8 F 4.0 Ca 1.0 Table of Electronegativities CaF 2 : large SiC: small Adapted from Fig. 2.7, Callister 6e. (Fig. 2.7 is adapted from Linus Pauling, The Nature of the Chemical Bond , 3rd edition, Copyright 1939 and 1940, 3rd edition. Copyright 1960 by Cornell University. Large vs small ionic bond character: CERAMIC BONDING
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3 Charge Neutrality : --Net charge in the structure should be zero.
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