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Chapter 22Study anatomy of the respiratory systemoNasal cavity to sinuses, to pharynx through the oral cavity, pharynx goes down to larynx, then turns into trachea which then goes into bronchi, bronchi subdivide until they get really small, bronchioles terminate in alveoli, this is where we have gas exchange with circulatory systemoRib cage is a vital part of the circulatory system (your lungs will not inflate and deflate without them)We have a semi closed system that starts with the rib cage that is sealed offat the bottom with the diaphragm- seals thorax off from diaphragm oOnly opening in this cavity is trachea that opens to mouth and nose- we essentially create a sealed chamber in which we can manipulate volume and pressureVentilation- the mechanical movement of air into OR out of the pulmonary structuresoEITHER the volume of air you inspire OR the volume you expire (NOT BOTH)oBrings air into nasal or oral cavity, through pharynx, down through the trachea, down to the bronchi, eventually to the bronchioles, then to the alveoli (when you exhale it is the same thing in reverse)oFunction is to bring in fresh air that is high in oxygen, low in CO2, to supply the alveoli with oxygenoWhen we exhale it is to get rid of CO2oExchanging CO2 for oxygen that we then bring inStructuresoNose hairs associated with the okapis of the nostrilThese hairs eliminate large particles of dirt and prevent them from makingit further into the airway system and getting into our lungs where they can cause damageoA large part of the air passageway is to get rid of dirtoNasal conchae- protrusions in the sinusesMaeti between the conchaeThe whole point is to increase surface area and create turbulence in that airMakes contact with the lining of the nasal passageoWhat are the linings of these passageways made up of?Pseudostratified stratified epithelium- goblet (mucus producing) cells and columnar cellsThis mucus is importantProduce mucus all the time, just not in large quantitiesAir will make contact with mucusThe dirt in air sticks to mucus (ex. blew nose after the farm tour)Our air passageways play an important role in filtering out the dirt in the air we breatheoMucus also has an additional important functionMucus contains water which hydrates the air
Adds moisture to the air we breathe inWe want the air to be moist and not dry up the alveoliNormally by the time the air you inhale reaches trachea, it is completely saturated with moisture, in large part because of the mucusEx. when you have a cold and breathe through your mouth- the back of your mouth dries out (nasal passages can do this more effectively than mouth)Breathing though mouth bypasses filtering capacityoPharyngotympanic tube (eustachian tube)- tube that connects to inner earWhen you are on an airplane and your ears get plugged (plug nose to try toopen this up and equalize pressure)