BIO 204 Review Sheet for Final Exam_Chap_25

BIO 204 Review Sheet for Final Exam_Chap_25 - Numerous...

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BIO 204 Review Sheet for Final Exam CHAPTER 25 PHYLOGENY AND SYSTEMATICS What two approaches do we take when addressing questions concerning relatedness and history? What are some road-blocks/difficulties in properly linking current and extinct species? o It is hard to distinguish similarities between 2 organisms. o Adaptation can obscure homology and convergence. Know the mistakes (i.e., rules – Para vs. Poly) associated with cladograms o Cladistics- Study of resemblances among clades. o Cladogram- Depiction of patterns of shared characteristics among taxa. The same as a Phylogenic Tree. o Phylogeny Systematics- The study of biological diversity in evolutionary terms. It is based on shared characteristics. o Monophyletic- A taxon derived from a single ancestral species that gave rise to no other species. o Paraphyletic Clade- Ancestral species, and some, but not all descendants. o Polyphyletic Grouping-
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Unformatted text preview: Numerous types or organisms that lack a single ancestor. Be able to explain, compare, and contrast shared derived and shared primitive characters. o Shared Primitive Character-A homology common to a taxon more inclusive than the one that is trying to be defined. o Shared Derived Character-An evolutionary novelty unique to a particular clade. (hair is for mammals). o Outgroup-A species that is closely related to the species being studied, but are distantly related than any study-group members are to each other. o Dichotomy- Under which comparisons do molecular techniques replace anatomical techniques? o How do the questions to be addressed change when the mutation rate of DNA changes? Parsimony- The simplest answer to a question. o Know how to pick which tree is most parsimonious. Pick the tree with the smallest amount of changes....
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