Comprehensive - BIO 204 Comprehensive Review Sheet for...

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BIO 204 Comprehensive Review Sheet for Final Exam Exam I (Chapters 1, 12, 13, and end of 14) Chapter 1 (Intro to Scientific Exploration): Know the steps involved in the scientific method. o Research Question(Observation) o Hypothesis with a Prediction o An Experimental Design o Data Collection and Analysis o Conclusion o What is a control- The group in an experiment that is not effected or altered. Why can’t scientists prove anything? Everything is considered a theory, there is always another possibility to everything. Know the details of the central dogma o DNA—RNA—Protein o Transcription- When DNA makes a copy and now there is RNA. o Translation- When the RNA is turned into a protein. Know the Two Laws of Thermodynamics : 1) Energy cannot be created or destroyed. 2) When energy is used, less becomes available. Chapters 12 and 13 (Mitosis and Meiosis): What cells undergo mitosis- Somatic. Be able to compare and contrast Meiosis and Mitosis. o Don’t need to know each phase (prophase vs. metaphase) just major differences. o Mitosis: o Prophase—Prometaphase—Metaphase—Anaphase—Telophase—Cytokinesis. o Meiosis : o Prophase1—Metaphase1—Anaphase1—Telophase1—Metaphase2—Anaphase2—Telophase2 —Cytokinesis o Mitosis and Meiosis Differences: Mitosis yields daughter cells that are identical to the parents, while Meiosis produces daughter cells that differ from parents and each other. In Meiosis the chromosome number is half of that of Mitosis daughter cells. In Meiosis, after Telophase1, there is twice the genetic material, so more division is needed. So The cell goes through PMAT again. o 3 events unique to Meiosis: Tetrad- When the 4 chromatids are linked together. Chiasmata- Where crossing over occurs on tetrads. Synapsis- When homologous chromosomes pair up. Chapter 14 (Mendel): Make sure you understand Mendel’s breeding pattern (what did he cross with what). o Reciprocal Cross- o What occurred (phenotype) at each stage within Mendel’s breeding scenario? Can you explain the 3:1 ratio? 1:2:1 ratio? Why are phenotypic and genotypic ratios different? Law of Segregation- The 2 alleles are separated into separate gametes. Law of Independent Assortment- Allele pairs segregate during gamete formation. Know the details surrounding each of the eight alterations to Mendel’s ratios o Incomplete Dominance- When neither allele for flower color is dominant, so they blend. o Co-Dominance- When 2 alleles affect the phenotype in separate distinguishable ways.
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o Genes with Multiple Alleles- When multiple alleles combine and affect the phenotype. o Lethality o Pleiotropy- When one gene has many phenotypic effects. o Epistasis- When one gene at one loci affects the phenotype expression at another loci.
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