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Ch 8 Exam Review - Ch 8 language thinking and intelligent...

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Ch 8- language, thinking, and intelligent behavior 1) Language- system of symbols/rules for combining them that can produce an infinite number of meanings Displacement- past, future, and imagined events & objects that are not physically present can be symbolically represented and communicated 3 critical properties of language 1-Symbolic, meaning it uses sounds, signs, gestures, to refer to objects, events, ideas, or feelings. 2-Has rule-governed structure. Rules tell how symbols can be combined to create meaningful comm. units. 3-Generative. Symbols can be combined to generate an infinite number of messages. 2) Surface vs. Deep Structures Surface Deep consist of the way symbols combined within a given language rules are called syntax - rules of grammar expressing thoughts to others causes us to turn deep structure into surface structure which others recommend refers to the underlying meaning of the combined symbols the rules for connecting the symbols to what they represent when recalling facts, more likely to recover deep structure (meaning) rather than specific terms phonemes- smallest units of sound that are recognized as separate in a given language no inherent meaning alter meaning when combined with other elements morphemes- smallest units of meaning in a language consist of single syllable english’s 40 phonemes can be combined into 100k+ morphemes can be combined into more than 500,000 words 3) Language Acquisition Biological Foundation- children master language early in life without formal instruction. All adult languages, including sign, seem to have common characteristics. Language acquisition represents biologically primed process within a social learning environment. At 6 months infants abandon other languages than their own. LAD (language acquisition device) innate biological mechanism contains general grammatical rules common to all languages.
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Sex Differences- broca’s area located in left hemisphere of frontal responsible for speech production. Wernicke’s area in rear portion of temporal lobe. Damage to any is called aphasia. Men who have left hemisphere strokes are more likely than women to get aphasia (disruption in speech comprehension and/or production. Females are more likely to have their language spared; more of their info is stored in the right hemisphere.
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