Minerals Correctrf

Minerals Correctrf - Sodium Sodium is one of the primary...

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1 Sodium • Sodium is one of the primary electrolytes in the body and is responsible for maintaining fluid balance. • Dietary recommendations include a moderate intake of salt and sodium. • Excesses may aggravate hypertension. • Most of the sodium in the diet is found in table salt and processed foods. Sodium • Sodium Roles in the Body – Maintains normal fluid and electrolyte and acid-base balance – Assists in nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction – Filtered out of the blood by the kidneys Sodium • Sodium Recommendations – Minimum Adults: 500 mg/day – Adequate Intake (2004) • For those 19-50 years of age, 1,500 mg/day • For those 51-70 years of age, 1,300 mg/day • For those older than 70 years of age, 1,200 mg/day – The upper intake level for adults is 2,300 mg/day. – Maximum % Daily Value on food labels is set at 2400 mg/day. Sodium • Sodium and Hypertension – Salt has a great impact on high blood pressure. Salt restriction does help to lower blood pressure. – Salt sensitivity is a term to describe individuals who respond to a high salt intake with high blood pressure. – Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) is a diet plan that helps to lower blood pressure. • Sodium and Bone Loss (Osteoporosis) – High sodium intake is associated with calcium excretion. Sodium • Sodium in Foods – Large amounts in processed foods (approximately 75% of sodium in the diet) – Table salt (approximately 15% added sodium in the diet) – Sodium may be present in surprisingly high amounts if chloride is removed. – Moderate amounts in meats, milks, breads and vegetables (approximately 10% of sodium in the diet)
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2 Sodium • Sodium Deficiency – Sodium and water must be replaced after vomiting, diarrhea or heavy sweating. – Symptoms are muscle cramps, mental apathy, and loss of appetite. – Salt tablets without water induce dehydration. – Be careful of hyponatremia during ultra-endurance athletic activities. • Sodium Toxicity and Excessive Intakes – Edema and acute hypertension – Prolonged high intake may contribute to hypertension. Hypertension • Major contributor to heart attacks and strokes • Develops through kidney response; obesity; insulin resistance • Usually cannot feel the physical effects • Aneurysms can be fatal Risk Factors for Hypertension • Smoking • High blood lipids • Diabetes • Gender • Age • Genetics • Obesity • Ethnicity Recommendations • Weight Control – Physical Activity • Moderate alcohol consumption • Moderate sodium/salt intake <6 g salt, <2300/2400 mg sodium – Salt sensitive groups are African Americans, elderly, people with hypertension or diabetes – The DASH Diet- High in fruits and vegetables, low in fat, less meats Important Screening Levels > 140/ > 90 120-39/ 80-89 <120/80 Blood Pressure > 30 25-29.9 18.5-24.9 BMI High Borderline Desirable
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3 Blood Lipid Levels-Important Screening Guidelines
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This note was uploaded on 04/20/2008 for the course NHM 101 taught by Professor Baker- during the Spring '08 term at Alabama.

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Minerals Correctrf - Sodium Sodium is one of the primary...

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