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Minerals Correctrf

Minerals Correctrf - Sodium Sodium is one of the primary...

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1 Chapter 12 & 13 The Major & Trace Minerals Sodium Sodium is one of the primary electrolytes in the body and is responsible for maintaining fluid balance. Dietary recommendations include a moderate intake of salt and sodium. Excesses may aggravate hypertension. Most of the sodium in the diet is found in table salt and processed foods. Sodium Sodium Roles in the Body – Maintains normal fluid and electrolyte and acid-base balance – Assists in nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction – Filtered out of the blood by the kidneys Sodium Sodium Recommendations – Minimum Adults: 500 mg/day – Adequate Intake (2004) For those 19-50 years of age, 1,500 mg/day For those 51-70 years of age, 1,300 mg/day For those older than 70 years of age, 1,200 mg/day – The upper intake level for adults is 2,300 mg/day. – Maximum % Daily Value on food labels is set at 2400 mg/day. Sodium Sodium and Hypertension – Salt has a great impact on high blood pressure. Salt restriction does help to lower blood pressure. – Salt sensitivity is a term to describe individuals who respond to a high salt intake with high blood pressure. – Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) is a diet plan that helps to lower blood pressure. Sodium and Bone Loss (Osteoporosis) – High sodium intake is associated with calcium excretion. Sodium Sodium in Foods – Large amounts in processed foods (approximately 75% of sodium in the diet) – Table salt (approximately 15% added sodium in the diet) – Sodium may be present in surprisingly high amounts if chloride is removed. – Moderate amounts in meats, milks, breads and vegetables (approximately 10% of sodium in the diet)
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2 Sodium Sodium Deficiency – Sodium and water must be replaced after vomiting, diarrhea or heavy sweating. – Symptoms are muscle cramps, mental apathy, and loss of appetite. – Salt tablets without water induce dehydration. – Be careful of hyponatremia during ultra-endurance athletic activities. Sodium Toxicity and Excessive Intakes – Edema and acute hypertension – Prolonged high intake may contribute to hypertension. Hypertension Major contributor to heart attacks and strokes Develops through kidney response; obesity; insulin resistance Usually cannot feel the physical effects Aneurysms can be fatal Risk Factors for Hypertension • Smoking High blood lipids • Diabetes • Gender • Age • Genetics • Obesity • Ethnicity Recommendations Weight Control – Physical Activity Moderate alcohol consumption Moderate sodium/salt intake <6 g salt, <2300/2400 mg sodium – Salt sensitive groups are African Americans, elderly, people with hypertension or diabetes – The DASH Diet- High in fruits and vegetables, low in fat, less meats Important Screening Levels > 140/ > 90 120-39/ 80-89 <120/80 Blood Pressure > 30 25-29.9 18.5-24.9 BMI High Borderline Desirable
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3 Blood Lipid Levels-Important Screening Guidelines High Borderline Desirable 200-499 150-199 <150 Triglycerides <40 59-40 > 60 HDL Cholesterol 160-189 130-159 <100 LDL Cholesterol > 240 200-239 <200 Total
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