test 2 review - I From Martyrdom to Monasticism Monasticism...

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I. From Martyrdom to Monasticism Monasticism is related to crumbling of empire in West Devil was seen as the persecution behind the Roman empire A. Martyr as Christ’s Soldier Devil Roman empire o Devil behind Roman empire, & Roman empire persecuting you, the way to fight the devil is to withstand the persecution Enduring battling Dying victory Willing to die & suffer for Christ Not about making a scene, about being faithful o As soon as Roman becomes Christians. This all goes away and now there is a shift & devil (evil) has just gone to other places (underground) B. Monk as the New Martyr To fight devil, go out to desert Not just to pick a fight w/ devil, but many Christians felt like the new Christians in Roman empire were different o Saw empire going downward & wanted to escape Monks = people who go to desert = new martyr Ascenticism: severe self discipline Monasterion: single room/cell (greek) II. Monastic Orders Hermitic o Solitary, sought isolation o Go to wilderness yourself o Ex) St. Anthony (Athonasius writes story about him) 3 rd cent; Leaves home after death of parents and feels need to give up wealth & pocessions Moves to graveyard (still feels too close to civilization) so goes to desert Feels like he is tempted by demons (vivid images) His story becomes base for ascenticism o Criticism: life is not useful only benefits individual no accountability no church connection oen to abuses (pretend to be beggars) Cenobitic o Community monasteries o rule: fix relationships, times, etc has no connection to church o St. Benedict (5 th cent) Benedict monks/rules = those who follow him Grew up In wealthy family but retreats when 20 & forms community & develops rules
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Secular sacred Very balanced: didn’t seek perfection but still kept people in line o Chasity, poverty, obedience III. Friars Break w/ monastic o Yes to all morals o No to cloistered life Engaged in world by preaching Goal is not to retreat from world, but to make world sacred o Mundane sacred Francis of Assisi (12 th cent) o going off to war and has vision calling to abandon wealth o heard “build my church” rebuild Catholicism in general o Francision friars Known for charity & preaching “preach the gospel, if necessary use words” IV. Legacy Schools Laity – not priest, don’t work w/ church, jut normal people that chose to live this lifestyle o Organization of people part of church but not part of clergy I. Rise of the Papacy Pope comes from the word pappas (ruler) Pope = Bishop of Rome A. NT and Early Church Matthew 16= base o Peter = rock Catholics interpret as church built on Peter o Peter goes to Rome Apostolic succession- Peter passes on leadership after death o Bishop of Rome has the leadership passed on by Peter I Clement o Church in Rome writes letter giving “advice” oh how to run establishment o Irenaeus
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