Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mind. Scientific knowledge is based on observation . Psychologists infer how the mind works from directly measuring behavior. Empiricism – the idea that knowledge comes directly from experience. Nativism – the idea that some knowledge is present at birth. Gestalt psychology – movement proposing that certain organizing principles of perception are innate and cannot be altered by experience. Structuralism – study of the structure of immediate conscious experience; breaking things down into elements to understand it; used introspection to research. Wundt (1896) and Titchener . Functionalism – study of the function of immediate conscious experience and purpose; you need to determine the goal of the mind first; William James (1842-1910); wrote principles of psychology. Behaviorism – the study of observable behavior rather than immediate conscious experience; John B Watson (1878-1958); how changes in the environment can lead to changes in behavior. Cognitive revolution
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