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1Case StudyNicole YeeWest Coast UniversityAnatomy 260Dr. Stewart
2The first arrow penetrated both the parietal and visceral pleurae. The parietal pleura is theouter layer that lines the thoracic cavity. It includes the inner surface of the thoracic wall, thesuperior surface of the diaphragm, and the surfaces of the mediastinum. The visceral pleura is theouter most layer of the lung and extends into the fissures between the lobes. The pleural cavity isthe space between the parietal and visceral pleurae that contains pleural fluid. Pleural fluid isresponsible for lubricating and reducing friction between both parietal and visceral pleurae. Bothpleurae are made up of “mesothelium [and] supported by a thin layer of areolar connective tissuerich in blood and lymphatic vessels” (Martini, 2018, pg. 73).According to our text, “the autonomic nervous system is associated with involuntaryactivities of smooth muscles, glands and visceral structures and visceral structures and involvesafferent sensory and efferent motor nerves” (Martini, 2018). It is split into two subdivisionscalled the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. The arrow attack or other stressfulconditions will initiate a response from the sympathetic nervous system also called fight-or-flight. The release of acetylcholine and epinephrine, and norepinephrine during this responsecauses: increased heart rate, blood pressure, respiration rate, and core temperature (Cherry,2019).

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Term
Summer
Professor
BenTran
Tags
hyaline cartilage

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