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Adult Development and Aging
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Chapter 8 / Exercise 09
Adult Development and Aging
Blanchard-Fields/Cavanaugh
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Unformatted text preview: Public Opinion: Public Opinion ● Collective opinion of many people on some issue, problem etc. ­ Trust in government is one of the most important measures of public opinion ­ More knowledge = more trust Samples ­ Representative → correct group, and variety of people (gender, sex) ­ Probability Sampling → ensure no bias Sample Error ­ ​ data from ​ unrepresentativeness of the sample taken. Political Socialization​ ­ the way people form their political values and beliefs Political ideology​ ­ ​ Cohesive set of beliefs that form a general philosophy about the role of government 1. What is one of the most important measures of public opinion? ​ trusting government 2. What is political socialization? ​ The way we form our political and social opinions 3. How do we acquire our political and social opinions?​ through political socialization, family is most important factor in shaping opinion, peers do as well 4. How is public opinion measured?​ Polls/surveys, everyone must have equal chance to take the poll in order to avoid sampling error (must be repp 5. What are the problems with polling? a. Only “snapshots” of opinion b. Questions not properly worded c. Push pulling (biasing questions) d. Illusion of Saliency (how strong does public feel about issue) e. Selection bias (only picking men) f. Sampling error g. Measurement error h. hard to word questions i. people have very little knowledge 6. What is political ideology?​ C ​ohesive set of beliefs that form a general philosophy about the role of government ○ Conservatives​ ­ emphasize support for social and economic status­quo, and limited government action except to promote morals/traditions ○ Liberals​ ­ emphasize social and political reform and government action to promote economic social inequality 7. Know the common types of political ideology in the US. and what they support and oppose. 8. conservative and liberal (know examples, and platform of beliefs) The Media: Know the bold terms used throughout the lecture and chapter. Media’s power​ ­ not government owned, same 5 companies own ALL of the media Understand the sources of news in America. TV ­ will reach the most people (can be biased, depending on the station) Newspaper ­ most important (investigative journalism) Internet ­ allows you to be a part and shape the news 2. Understand the media’s power. Gate keeping what is on the news They control the agenda setting plan Prime and frame us to take a certain position Not all news sources are the same 3. Understand the regulation of the media by the federal government. Government does ​ not​ own the media The government simply just… regulates the media and it’s content (what can and can’t be on the media) 4. Know the Telecommunications Act of 1996. Government goes in, and deregulates ownership ○ Loosened federal restrictions of media ownership ○ Predicted to gain more competition (ended up being false) ○ Regulated content on the internet (later struck down by the USSC) 5. As a result 90% of the media is owned by 5 corporations, What is the result of that? Is this bad thing? What's the consequence? ● Bad thing because content is restricted to the beliefs of same 5 corporations Campaigns and Elections: Know the bold terms used throughout the lecture and chapter. Pac​ ­ Collects campaign contributions and donates to campaignfor or against candidates ○ Becomes a PAC when it receives or spends more that $2600 to influence a federal election Super Pac​ ­ “Independent­expenditure only committees” may NOT make contributions to candidate campaigns or parties, but may engage in unlimited political spending independently of the campaigns front runners Soft Money​ ­ non­regulated money, supports the overall party, not a particular candidate, no limit attached with amount Hard Money​ ­ cash directly related to election candidate, must follow strict guidelines by the FEC Magic Words Test​ ­ establishes line of what's hard money, whats soft money Independent Expenditures ­ ​ (don’t mention magic words) “​ expressly advocating the election or defeat of a clearly identified candidate that is not made in cooperation, consultation, or concert with, or at the request or suggestion of, a candidate, a candidate’s authorized committee, or their agents, or a political party or its agents. What is the function of campaigns and elections in the U.S. ● Campaigns and elections are a big part of democracy: ○ Allows citizens/groups to have a voice ○ Determines the confidence in government ○ Allows candidates to gain publicity ● In the US, campaigns are… ○ Lengthy ○ Competitive ○ Requires $$$, media attention, and momentum to win 2. Understand the characteristics of modern day elections in the U.S. ● very long ● requires lots of money ● requires momentum going in beginning of the race ­­­> which leads to more media attention ● most poll ratings, higher attention, usually ends up who wins = front runners ● 2 stages: nomination and general elections ○ At nomination stage… ■ First stage of election ■ Candidates compete within the same party to get the nomination ○ At general election stage… ■ At a caucus, local party members gather to nominate a candidate. ■ A primary is more like a general election. Voters go to the polls to cast their votes for a presidential candidate (or delegates who will represent that candidate at the party convention). Primary elections are the main way for voters to choose a nominee. 3. Know the trends in voter turnout in presidential elections and how it compares to other countries. ● Voter turnout is really low ● 50% or less​ of voters actually turn out for presidential elections ● Turnout is even lower for state and local elections 4. Understand the process of voter registration in the U.S. and the Motor Voter Act of 1993. ● On you to register ● States maintain voter own laws ● In the past states made exclusionary laws to keep people from voting to decrease turnout (historically) ● Try to make it easier with motor voter act of 1993 ● RESULTS: increase in registration, decrease in voting 5. Understand the process of how federal elections are funded. ● for most part, privately funded elections ● system of matching funds for presidential elections ● mostly through private ● Soft money and Hard $$$ ● The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act​ (1883) ○ Prohibited government employees from soliciting contributions from civil service employees ○ Creates a more “objective” civil service ● Till­Man Act​ (1907) ○ Prohibited corporations and nationally chartered banks from making direct financial contributions to federal candidates ● Taft­Hartley Act​ (1947) ○ Extended contributions ban to labor unions ● TheFederal Campaign Act (1971) ○ Sets caps on spending of candidate ○ Bans use of personal wealth ○ Require full disclosure (a report to FEC to where you are getting $$ from) ○ Establish presidential matching funds system ■ Gave less known candidates opportunity to have their campaign funds matched ■ Requirements: $5000 from 20 states, had to be given in $250 chunks of donations ○ Set limits on direct donations (​ hard money​ → regulated) ○ Created FEC ● Buckley v. Valeo (1976) ○ Overturns caps on total campaign spending ○ Overturns ban on candidate personal spending ○ Overturns regulations of independent expenditures (​ soft money​ → not regulated) (​ magic world test ​ → as long as you don’t mention these words, it’ll be considered soft $) ● Political Action Committees ○ Grows in numbers in 1980s ○ Designed to help fund political action unions ● BiPartisan Campaign ○ 2 parties coming together to pass law ○ Bans on corporate banks and labor unions from using general treasury funds for independent expenditures ○ Increased donor limits ● Citizen United v. FEC (2010) ○ Bans limit on outside group spending ○ Overturns ban on corporation giving funds for expenditures ○ Allows corporations, banks and labor unions to use general treasury funds for independent expenditures ● SuperPacs ○ Grown in the last 5 years ○ “Independent­expenditure only committees” many NOT make contributions to candidate campaigns or parties, but may engage in unlimited political spending independently of the campaigns ● PAC ○ Collects campaign contributions and donates to campaign for or against candidates ○ Becomes a PAC when it receives or spends more that $2600 to influence a federal election 6. What is the difference between a PAC and Super­PAC? ● A Super PAC may not make contributions to candidate campaigns or parties, but may engage in unlimited political spending independently of the campaigns. Unlike PACs, Super PACs can raise funds without any legal limit on donation size. 7. ​ What is the magic words test? 8. Did the State Supreme Court of Montana overrule the Citizens United decision by the U.S. Supreme Court? from movie, Montana Corrupt practices act (Big $, Big Sky) from PBS front line Political Parties: political parties ­ ​ Organized groups attempting to influence the government by election their members to public office Interest groups ​ ­ organizations of people with similar policy goals who enter the political process to try to achieve these goals divided government​ ­ ​ describes a situation in which one party controls the White House and another party controls one or both houses of the United States Congress ● republican dominating for 50 years, then democratic party dominating for several years, vice versa political realignment​ ­ drastic change in political organization ● Congress ran by Republicans, Senate ran by democratic party 1. Which of the following best describes a divided government? Democratic party controls the executive branch and the Republican Party controls the legislative Branch. 2. What is the role/function of political parties? Organized groups attempting to influence the government by election their members to public office a. They mobilize voters b. Vet the candidates​ → want a good representative for their party c. Nominate candidates d. Propose policy alternatives ​ → “play the underdog” e. Coordinate actions of elected official​ → make sure actions of elected officials hold up to doing what they say 3. Understand the history of political parties in the U.S. ● ● ● ● Don’ t need to memorize entire history when did republican dominated gov when did democrats dominated on period gov Since 1968 no one party has dominated, they take turns 4. Understand what third parties are and why they exist. ● Have some importance on policy even if they don't win major races ● Third parties​ also exist to represent the social and economic issues not represented by major parties 5. What is the ultimate success for a political party? ● winning the election = ultimate success 6. What is a political realignment and why do they occur? ● One party dominates government, then votes the other party why does this happen?? analyzing question on exam Interest Groups iron triangle​ ­ ​ ​ iron triangle​ comprises the ​ policy​ ­making relationship among the ​ congressional committees​ , the ​ bureaucracy​ , and ​ interest group​ s Pluralism​ ­ ​ Classical ​ pluralism​ is the view that politics and decision making are located mostly in the framework of ​ governm​ ent​ , but that many non­governmental groups use their resources to exert influence. free rider collective goods​ ­ ​ Setting a value that cannot be withheld from an interest group member. 1. What are the strategies of interest groups? Overall Strategies ● Overall strategy​ is to cultivate long­term relationships without government officials and policy makers or form ​ iron “triangles” ○ Tight relationships between interest groups, executive power, and congress $ Indirect Strategies ● Indirect strategies​ ­ advertising and demonstrating, creating rating systems ○ Example ­ getting the people involved instead of sending lobbyists, “scorecards” rates of how legislatures are getting scored on certain issues, super pacs Direct Strategies ● Direct strategies ​ ­ lobbying, testifying before congress and rule makers, “help” draft policy, and fund campaigns ○ Example ­ lobbying, protest/bribe against congress, willing to right bills/policies, PACs 2. Understand the different types of interest groups. Different types of interest groups and law of large groups (some will be more successful than others) ● Economic interest → ​ bank, oil, movie industry ● Labor →​ labor unions ● Business →​ linked to economic interest, chamber of commerce ● Environmental interest →​ rely on young members, oil, air pollution control ● Equality interests → ​ marriage, L/G rights ● Consumer and public interest lobbies → ​ consumer protection rights, clean air/water, education ● Mancur Olsen’s ​ Law of Large Groups ○ “Larger the group the more likely it’ll fall short of it’s goals” ● Free­rider problem ○ Many of it’s members don’t do anything to actually contribute, lobby, help make money for the cause, so they are are considered “free­riders” because they are still receiving benefits of the group 3. What are the theories of interest group activity? ● Pluralist Theory ○ Politics is mainly a competition among groups; each one pressing for its own policy preferences ○ All interest are represented ● Elite Theory ○ Society divided along class lines ○ The group with power is those with most resources ● Hyperpluralist Theory ○ Too many groups getting too much of what they want ○ Government policies have become contradictory and lacking direction ○ Groups are so strong that government is weak ○ Pluralism gone bad ■ Example ­ trying to find cure for cancer v. funding tobacco companies 4. What is the “ideal pluralism” and the problem with achieving it. ● Problem with achieving not all are participating, some of have more resources that others ● A theory of government and politics emphasizing that politics is mainly a competition among groups, each one pressing for its own preferred policies. ● Free Rider problem 5. What are the drawbacks of the interest groups system? ● Some groups have more resources than other groups ● Hard to achieve the “ideal pluralism” ● Groups are working hard to “capture” government officials and form iron triangles 6. Growth of interest groups ● interest groups growing as government is growing*** ...
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