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ID’sSocial Contract (enlightenment 1650s-1780s)- came about during the Enlightenment period. It questions how society came about and whether or not the state has proper control over the individual. It was written by John- Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778). Rousseau created the idea that citizens as individuals emerge from the State. All of the citizens must join together in order to create a “general will”. He believed people must obey the “general will” in order to receive civil and social freedom. Meiji Restoration(1868)- The overthrow of the Tokugawa bakufu in Japan in 1868 and the “restoration” of power to the imperial government under the Emperor Meiji. It described the revolution that got rid of the shogunate and created the new regime of the Meiji emperor. It was caused by a need of the people to have centralization within in their government and unity within their communities. It was a true consolidation of of power and political ideals within a political system under the Emperor of Japan. Opium Wars(1839-1860)- 2 wars resulting from trade disputes between China andGreat Britain over China’s efforts to curtail the sale of opium by Great Britain. The first Opium War took place from 1839-1842 and the second from 1856-1860. The showed how weak China was and took away Western respect for Chinese institutions and their empire during the Enlightenment. The West saw China as barbarians and it was a crime in China to believe that the West was civilized. Britain wanted to sell more opium within China but China did not want its people getting addicted to it. In 1839, the Chinese government drafted a letter to Queen Victoria. The letter stated that China was going to put very severe restrictions and punishments towards Opium dealers in order to prevent them from selling it to the Chinese population. When Commissioner Lin attempted to throw all of the Opium hecould find into the sea, the British retaliated by blockading Chinese ports and re-opened trading forcibly. Sino-Japanese War(1937-1945)- various incidents instigated by Japan lead to full-scale war in 1937 in an attempt by Japan to turn China into a subject territory. Japanese invaded China and turned Manchuria into a puppet state. This conflict merges with WWII. The Manchurian Incident occurred when Japanese militants attempted to turn Manchuria into a Japanese puppet monarchy. It was part of a long series of global conflicts. Social Darwinism(1859)- The misapplication of Darwin’s biological theories to human societies, often to justify claims of racial superiority and rule by the strong over the weak. After Darwin published “The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection” people began to interpret his theory as a means for “survival of the fittest”within society. They believed that “conflict is natural, and therefore good”. They believed that the extinction of the inferior races would bring about a better society for the master races. Also, the feeble or stupid should not be allowed to recreate.