Chapter 3 - Chapter 3 Biology and Behavior Neurons Central...

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Chapter 3: Biology and Behavior Neurons The basic units of the nervous system; cells that receive, integrate, and transmit information in the nervous system. They operate through electrical impulses, communicate with other neurons through chemical signals, and form neural networks Central Nervous System (CNS) The brain and the spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) All nerve cells in the body that are not part of the central nervous system. The peripheral nervous system includes the somatic and autonomic nervous systems Sensory Neurons One of the three types of neurons; these neurons detect information from the physical world and pass that information to the brain Motor Neurons One of the three types of neurons; these neurons direct muscles to contract or relax, thereby producing movement Interneurons One of the three types of neurons; these neurons communicate within local or short-distance circuits Dendrites Branchlike extensions of the neuron that detect information from other neurons Cell Body The site in the neuron where information from thousands of other neurons is collected and integrated Axon A long narrow outgrowth of a neuron by which information is transmitted to other neurons Terminal Buttons At the ends of axons, small nodules that release chemical signals from the neuron into the synapse Synapse The gap between the axon of a “sending” neuron and the dendrites of a “receiving” neuron; the site at which chemical communication occurs between neurons Resting Membrane Potential The electrical charge of a neuron when it is not active Action Potential The electrical signal that passes along the axon and subsequently causes the release of chemicals from the terminal buttons Myelin Sheath A fatty material, made up of glial cells, that insulates some axons to allow for faster movement of electrical impulses along the axon Nodes of Ranvier Small gaps of exposed axon, between the segments of myelin sheath,

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