Chapter 17 continued

Chapter 17 continued - Chapter 17(continued Endocrine...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

Chapter 17 (continued): Endocrine Pancreas and Control of Fuel Metabolism 1. Metabolism : all chemical reactions that occur within the cells of the body where energy is extracted from nutrients through the synthesis or breakdown of molecules (How quickly you burn calories-how you use and store those calories) a. Two metabolic processes: i. Catabolism : the breakdown, or degradation of large, energy-rich organic molecules within cells -releases energy 1. Two levels of breakdown a. Hydrolysis of large macromolecules into smaller subunits b. Oxidation of smaller subunits (glucose) to yield energy for ATP production ii. Anabolism : the buildup or synthesis of larger organic macromolecules from small organic molecular subunits - requires energy 1. These reactions result in either: a. The manufacture of materials needed by the cell b. The storage of excess ingested nutrients not immediately needed for energy production or as cellular building blocks b. Events in metabolism and storage i. Absorptive state : ingested nutrients are entering the blood from the GI tract (first 4hrs after meal) absorb as many calories and nutrients as possible and store whatever we don’t need at that moment 1. Glucose is major energy source 2. Very little of absorbed fat and amino acids is used for energy 3. Body wants to absorb more calories/nutrients than is required immediately a. Some goes to bloodstream to feed cells b. The remainder is stored c. Total body storage is adequate for the “average” person to go weeks without food (as long as water is available) ii. Post-absorptive state : GI tract is empty of nutrients; stored nutrients must be used (after 4hrs and before next meal) 1. Endogenous energy stores are mobilized to provide energy and maintain blood homeostasis 2. Most cells go into glucose sparing : preferentially use lipids for energy, protein and fat synthesis is slowed or stopped cells use as little glucose as possible to save it for the brain 3. Glucose is reserved for brain 4. Liver increases gluconeogenesis : making glucose molecules from amino acids and other molecules
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

iii. Regulation of absorptive vs. post-absorptive states : 1. 2 hormones coordinate the cells of the body to shift between these two states a. Made by the endocrine pancreas: i. Insulin
Image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern