Chapter 17 continued

Chapter 17 continued - Chapter 17(continued Endocrine...

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Chapter 17 (continued): Endocrine Pancreas and Control of Fuel Metabolism 1. Metabolism : all chemical reactions that occur within the cells of the body where energy is extracted from nutrients through the synthesis or breakdown of molecules (How quickly you burn calories-how you use and store those calories) a. Two metabolic processes: i. Catabolism : the breakdown, or degradation of large, energy-rich organic molecules within cells -releases energy 1. Two levels of breakdown a. Hydrolysis of large macromolecules into smaller subunits b. Oxidation of smaller subunits (glucose) to yield energy for ATP production ii. Anabolism : the buildup or synthesis of larger organic macromolecules from small organic molecular subunits - requires energy 1. These reactions result in either: a. The manufacture of materials needed by the cell b. The storage of excess ingested nutrients not immediately needed for energy production or as cellular building blocks b. Events in metabolism and storage i. Absorptive state : ingested nutrients are entering the blood from the GI tract (first 4hrs after meal) absorb as many calories and nutrients as possible and store whatever we don’t need at that moment 1. Glucose is major energy source 2. Very little of absorbed fat and amino acids is used for energy 3. Body wants to absorb more calories/nutrients than is required immediately a. Some goes to bloodstream to feed cells b. The remainder is stored c. Total body storage is adequate for the “average” person to go weeks without food (as long as water is available) ii. Post-absorptive state : GI tract is empty of nutrients; stored nutrients must be used (after 4hrs and before next meal) 1. Endogenous energy stores are mobilized to provide energy and maintain blood homeostasis 2. Most cells go into glucose sparing : preferentially use lipids for energy, protein and fat synthesis is slowed or stopped cells use as little glucose as possible to save it for the brain 3. Glucose is reserved for brain 4. Liver increases gluconeogenesis : making glucose molecules from amino acids and other molecules
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iii. Regulation of absorptive vs. post-absorptive states : 1. 2 hormones coordinate the cells of the body to shift between these two states a. Made by the endocrine pancreas: i. Insulin
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