Carbon Emissions

Carbon Emissions - CONTROLLING POWER PLANT CO2 EMISSIONS: A...

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CONTROLLING POWER PLANT CO 2 EMISSIONS: A LONG RANGE VIEW John Marion (john.l.marion@power.alstom.com; 860-285-4539) Nsakala ya Nsakala (nsakala.y.nsakala@power.alstom.com; 860-285-2018) ALSTOM Power Plant Laboratories 2000 Day Hill Road Windsor, CT 06095, USA Timothy Griffin (timothy.griffin@power.alstom.com; +41 56/486 82 43) Alain Bill (alain.bill@power.alstom.com; +41 56/486 81 07) ALSTOM Power Technology Center 5405 Baden-Daettwil, Switzerland ABSTRACT ALSTOM Power (ALSTOM) is an international supplier of power generation with concern for the environment. We are aware of the present scientific concerns regarding greenhouse gas emissions and the role of fossil fuel use for power generation. Although the scientific and policy dialogue on global climate change is far from conclusive, ALSTOM continues to invest in R&D to develop: - high efficiency power generation equipment with the most modern technologies to utilize fossil fuels with the lowest possible emissions (short, medium and long term) term), and - technologies to remove and sequester carbon dioxide created in power plants in an environmentally and economically favorable manner (long term). This paper is an overview of activities to study and develop controls for carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from power generation. First, energy efficiency improvements for both new and existing fossil fuel power plants are briefly reviewed for both coal and natural gas fuels. Greater depth is then given to options for CO 2 capture and sequestration. These studies are looking at current and novel power generation technologies. CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS FROM FOSSIL FUELS When greenhouse gas emissions are under discussion, CO 2 is generally the gas which receives the most attention for its greenhouse effect. Although the radiative forcing of CO 2 is much less than other greenhouse gases (CH 4 , N 2 O, CFCs, etc.), CO 2 is emitted in large amounts into the atmosphere and has a rather long atmospheric lifetime. When all these parameters are modelled, with our current state of knowledge, to evaluate the global warming potential, CO 2 is estimated to contribute approximately 60% of the enhanced greenhouse gas effect [1].
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The exponential growth of the global economy since 1860 has been based on fossil fuel consumption. During this period, mankind has collectively released approximately 950 billion tons of carbon dioxide (260 Gt of carbon) from the burning of oil, coal and natural gas [2]. These fossil fuel emissions have been increasing at an average rate of 2% a year to a 1997 annual global output of around 23 billion tons of carbon dioxide (6.3 Gt of carbon) (Figure 1a). Roughly half of these emissions (3.5 Gt of carbon) remain in the atmosphere, the rest being adsorbed by natural processes [3]. CO 2 concentrations have increased by 35% from the pre-industrial 280 parts per million by volume (ppmv) to the current 370 ppmv (Figure 2). Coincident with these changes, the global average temperatures have increased
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This essay was uploaded on 04/21/2008 for the course EE 4343 taught by Professor Giesselmann during the Spring '08 term at Texas Tech.

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Carbon Emissions - CONTROLLING POWER PLANT CO2 EMISSIONS: A...

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