Chapter 01 Intro-2 - CH281 Course Introduc1on and Russell...

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Unformatted text preview: 1/21/16 CH281 Course Introduc1on and Russell, Chapter 1 What is Science? Prof. Philip Leopold McLean 111 Office hours: by appointment Email: [email protected] Phone: 201-­‐216-­‐8957 Prof. Anju Sharma McLean 313 Office hours: M, Th Noon-­‐1:30pm Email: [email protected] Phone: 201-­‐216-­‐5530 Prof. Ciara AgresQ McLean 115 Office hours: M, 1-­‐4 pm Email: [email protected] Phone: 201-­‐216-­‐8563 CH281 Biology & Biotechnology Goals Acquire an apprecia1on of biological organiza1on …from atoms to cells …as a series of self-­‐propagaQng chemical interacQons …as an interdependence of structure and funcQon Recognize how an understanding of biological principles enables engineering of biological systems including …tools available for synthesizing, assembling, and/or changing biological molecules …methods of analyzing biological molecules and systems …applicaQons of engineered biological systems 1 1/21/16 CH281 Biology & Biotechnology Textbook (on-­‐line) Russell, Hertz, & McMillan, Biology: The Dynamic Science, 3rd Edi1on Read the chapter before the lecture Course organiza1on Lecture 2 hr per wk – read chapter before lecture Highlights the text reading assignments NOT enQre content of course CLICKERS *****NEW***** Recita1on ****IMPORTANT**** 1 hr per week – based on my Topic Review Ques1ons On the white board! -­‐ first person writes answer w/help -­‐ second person edits answer and presents it briefly to the class -­‐ par1cipa1on grade -­‐ aYendance required -­‐ sign in Canvas CALENDAR!!!! Click on events Syllabus Lecture notes Topic review list Announcements Link to Cengage*****NEW***** Mindtap •  On-­‐line learning •  Digital text; vocabulary words •  Homework quesQons (par1cipa1on – due before each exam) •  AnimaQons with audio Grading 10% RecitaQon aeendance/parQcipaQon 10% Upload handwrieen Topic Review ans. 10% Online MindTap homework 15% Each exam (3) 25% Final exam CH281 Biology & Biotechnology Honor Code – we take it seriously Plagiarism – not acceptable in any form; you may not represent someone else’s work as your own without appropriate designaQon (quotaQon marks) and aeribuQon (citaQon of the source); including info from the web Late tes1ng – if you miss an exam due to an excused absence; we will schedule a make-­‐up exam (typically immediately aker the final) AYendance – required in recitaQon to parQcipate in Topic Review discussions; contact undergraduate Academic Deans with any valid excuses for missed recitaQons or exams; Deans will contact us to let us know that you should receive a make up exam Examina1ons/recita1ons -­‐ NO cell phones, electronic devices, study aids 2 1/21/16 Introduc1on to MindTap Why is science special? 3 1/21/16 Science is… the study of systems that are governed, at least in part, by the laws of nature Laws of nature The physical and chemical principles that describe interacQons among maeer as a consequence of the properQes of that maeer The goal of science is… …to generate new knowledge that is reliable, reproducible, relaQonal …to PREDICT AND CONTROL THE FUTURE Not subject to opinion While people may have opinions about scienQfic knowledge, its validity, and its interpretaQon, the laws of nature are NOT subject to opinion; regardless of your opinion on global warming, it is either happening or it is not; one speech, elecQon, radio talk show will not affect it How Do We Create New Knowledge? •  Science creates new knowledge using the scienQfic method •  Scien1fic method – “an invesQgaQve approach in which scienQsts make observaQons about the natural world, develop working explanaQons about what they observe, and then test those explanaQons by collecQng more informaQon” ….ughhhh…..boring…..? 4 1/21/16 What isn’t Science? •  An N of 1 – single observaQons; “my friend cured hiccups one Qme by saying the alphabet backwards” (no aeempt to reproduce) •  Data without context – no ability to understand the condiQons under which the data were acquired; no controls; unidenQfied variables (not relaQonal) •  Data that cannot be reproduced – systems where variables cannot be controlled (not reproducible) •  Opinion – data filtered by a biased evaluator (not reliable) •  Anything that you are not allowed to test (Truths) Where does biology fit into this? 5 1/21/16 Science Vocabulary Scien1fic hypotheses – tentaQve answer to a well-­‐framed quesQon; educated guess to explain an observaQon Scien1fic theories – broad statements about relaQonships in nature; gives rise to new hypotheses; supported by a large body of evidence; can be changed/discarded if a beeer explanaQon of the evidence is proposed; a theory is one of many tools used by scienQsts Scien1fic laws – broad statements about relaQonships in nature; not likely to be changed or discarded although excepQons might occur Scien1fic proofs – statements that are always true Degrees of freedom Few Many Hypotheses Theories Laws Proofs Math Physics Chemistry Biology Sociology Biology is Hierarchical 6 1/21/16 Biological Systems Share Energy and MaYer IEN TS NU TR TS IEN TR NU TS IEN TR NU •  Energy transfer is governed by NUTRIENTS the laws of thermodynamics – Secondary biology obeys physics consumers •  Energy takes the form of HEAT HEAT radiaQon (sunlight) or chemicals (ice cream) HEAT •  Life uses energy to propagate Primary Decomposers itself by controlling its consumers environment; the sun is (almost exclusively) the source HEAT HEAT for the energy that sustains life Primary Sun •  Maeer, in the form of producers nutrients, are shared by living HEAT systems •  RED circles differ from book Biology Evolves •  “EvoluQon” means change •  There is no quesQon that the earth is evolving •  There is no quesQon that life on earth is evolving •  The quesQons are: What are the factors that drive evolu:on? What can we learn from evolu:on? How can we use the concept of evolu:on? •  A unifying theory would be helpful in these respects 7 ...
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