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unit 3.docx - UNIT 3 THE PROBLEM-SOLVING CYCLE - prob...

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UNIT 3THE PROBLEM-SOLVING CYCLE - prob identification, prob definition and representation,strategy formulation, organization of information, resource allocation, monitoring, evaluationTYPES OF PROBLEMS - well-structured problems (problem space, algorithms, heuristics,isomorphic problems), ill structured problems and the role of insight (early gestaltist views, theneo gestaltist view, neuroscience and insight)OBSTACLES AND AIDS TO PROBLEM SOLVING - mental sets, entrenchment and fixation,negative and positive transfer, neuroscience and planning during problem solving, intelligenceand complex problem solvingEXPERTISE: KNOWLEDGE AND PROBLEM SOLVING - organization of knowledge, innatetalent and acquired skill, artificial intelligence and expertise (can a computer be intelligent?, theTuring test)CREATIVITY - what are the characteristics of creative people, neuroscience and creativityJUDGEMENT AND DECISION MAKING - classical decision theory (model of economic manand woman, subjective expected utility theory), heuristics and biases (satisficing, elimination ofaspects, representativeness heuristic, availability heuristic, anchoring, framing, illusorycorrelation, overconfidence, hindsight bias), fallacies (gamblers fallacy, conjunction fallacy,sunk cost fallacy), group decision making (benefits, groupthink), neuroscience of decisionmakingDEDUCTIVE REASONING - what is it, conditional reasoning, syllogistic reasoning (what arecategorical syllogisms), aids and obstacles to deductive reasoning (heuristics in deductivereasoning, biases in deductive reasoning, enhancing deductive reasoning)INDUCTIVE REASONING - what it is, causal inferences, categorical inferences, reasoning byanalogyNEUROSCIENCE OF REASONINGORGANIZATION OF DECLRATIVE KNOWLEDGE - concepts and categories (natural andartifact categories, feature based categories: a defining view, prototype theory: a characteristicview, theory-based view of categorization), semantic network models (Collins and quilliansnetwork model, comparing semantic features), schematic representations (schemas, scripts)
PROCEDURAL KNWOLEDGE - The production of procedural knowledge, nondeclarativeknowledge

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