psyc_vocab_7 - Chapter 7 Human Development childhood: the...

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Chapter 7 – Human Development childhood : the years between birth and adolescence embryo : the developing child during the first eight weeks of life fetus : the developing child during the last seven months of pregnancy teratogens : factors in the environment that can harm the developing fetus placenta : a structure that surrounds, protects, and nourishes the fetus fetal alcohol syndrome : a disorder found in newborns whose mothers have consumed large amounts of alcohol during pregnancy reflexes : inherited responses to stimulation in certain areas of the body cognitive development : changes in cognitive abilities and functioning assimilation : in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, incorporation of new information into existing mental frameworks (schemas) schemas : cognitive frameworks representing our knowledge about specific accommodation : in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, modifications in existing knowledge structures (schemas) as a result of exposure to new information or experiences sensorimotor stage: in Piaget’s theory, the earliest stage of cognitive development object permanence : understanding the fact that objects continue to exist even when they are hidden from view preoperational stage : in Piaget’s theory, a stage of cognitive development during which children become capable of mental representations of the external world symbolic play : play in which children pretend that one object is another object egocentrism : the inability of young children to understand that others may perceive the world differently than they do conservation : understanding of the fact that certain physical attributes of an object remain unchanged even though its outward appearance changes concrete operations : a stage in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development occurring roughly between the ages of seven and eleven; children become aware of the permanence of objects and logical thought emerges formal operations : in Piaget’s theory, the final stage of cognitive development; the adolescent becomes capable of several forms of logical thought
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hypothetico-deductive reasoning : a type of reasoning first shown by individuals during the stage of formal operations; involves formulation a general theory and deducing specific hypotheses from it theory of mind : refers to children’s growing understanding of their own mental states and those of others curse of knowledge : refers to how we tend to be biased by our own knowledge when judging the perspective of people who know less about some topic than we do information-processing perspective : a perspective emphasizing the importance of information processing in cognitive development metacognition : awareness and understanding of our own cognitive processes scripts : mental representations of the sequence of events in a given situation language : the system we use to communicate information to others through the use of specific symbols (words, gestures) and the rules for combining them phonological awareness
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psyc_vocab_7 - Chapter 7 Human Development childhood: the...

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