Chapter 4 PSY 101 - Chapter4...

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Chapter 4 Senses ______—tactile (touch), vision, smell (olfaction), taste (gustation), hearing (audition). Also: vestibular  sense and kinesthetic sense.  transduced Each sensory modality/system is specialized to code its unique input into neural impulses that the brain  can interpret. Sensory messages are received via the eyes, ears, skin, etc. and are "________"  (converted) into neural impulses and sent to the brain. sensation ______ —the process of detecting and transducing raw sensory information; receiving sensory data  through the sensory receptors and sending it to the brain for analysis. perception _______ --the process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting sensory data into a usable mental  representation of the world. More below. transduction                         ________--the conversion of physical sensory stimuli into neural impulses. E.g., physical  sound vibrations received by the ear are transduced into neural impulses sent to the brain for  perception/interpretation. bottom-up processing      ________ —information processing that begins "at the bottom" with raw sensory data that feed "up" to the  brain. E.g., learning to read involves recognition of shapes that make up individual letters. top-down processing ______ —information processing that starts "at the top"; begins with cognitive processes such as one's  thoughts, expectations, and knowledge and works down. E.g., an experienced reader reads whole words  rather than individual letters. sensory reduction -humans receive more information at the sensory receptors than can be processed  -It is necessary to select only the information that is important.  visible spectrum E.g., humans hear sounds in the 20-20,000Hz range. Dogs can hear sounds up to 50KHz, and bats  perhaps to 100KHz. Human vision is limited to a fairly narrow spectrum of light waves called the  "__________." sensory adaptation decreased sensation that occurs when repeated or constant sensory info is sent to the brain. A state in  which the brain "turns down" constant stimuli that is not important to attend to (e.g., pressure of your back against the chair in class).                                     a. Allows people to operate efficiently in a wide range of stimulus intensities by  decreasing the sensitivity to constant, unchanging stimuli. perceptual habituation sensory adaptation —    Also called "________" absolute threshold the  _________-- the smallest magnitude of a stimulus that a subject can detect.
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Christopher Reinemann
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