Unformatted text preview: The document attempts to make an apologia, or defense, for the Second Crusade. It does this through the use of Biblical analogy and quotations in order for Saint Bernard to make his point. The intended audience of the document is the Pope. Hence is the reason why there are many Biblical references in the Apologia. For example, the Book of Corinthians was quoted; “we acted rashly in this affair or had used lightness . [2 Cor 1:17] But, I did not run my course like a man in doubt of his goal , [1 Cor 9:26] for I acted on your orders….” It was assumed that the Pope would have understood these citations. If this document had been written for the commoner of the day, chances are these references would not have been included because, one, most people were illiterate, and two, there was no widespread publication of the Bible until the invention of the printing press in the 1450s. Since paper was a valuable resource during this time period, St. Bernard would have been able to have access to the Bible over a continual basis either period, St....
View Full Document
- Spring '08
- Crusades, bible, Israelites, Land of Israel, Holy Land, Canaan