Chapter 16 - Chapter 16 Motivation 12:58 The Concept of...

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Chapter 16 – Motivation  12:58 The Concept of Motivation o Motivation Forces either w/in or external to a person that arouse enthusiasm and persistence to  pursue a certain course of action High motivation goes hand in hand w/ successful organizations Model of Human Motivation page 522 o 2 Types of Rewards Intrinsic  Satisfactions a person receives in the process of performing a particular action Extrinsic  Give by another person Ex:  Promotion, raise, bonus, etc. Foundations  of Motivation o Traditional Approach Economic  Man 1
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People would work harder for higher pay Led to incentive pay systems o Human  Relations Approach Began w/ Hawthorne studies Social Man Workers seen as people, w/ social needs more important o Human Resource Approach Whole Person Employees are complex and motivated by many factors By assuming employees are confident and responsible managers can enhance  organizational performance o Contemporary Approach 3 Types of Theories Content Theory o Stress analysis of underlying human needs o Help managers understand how needs can be satisfied in the workplace Process Theory o Concern the thought process that influence behavior o Focus on how people seek rewards in work circumstances Reinforcement Theory o Focus on employee learning of desired work behaviors Content Perspectives on Motivation o Hierarchy of Needs Theory Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory People are motivated by multiple needs and that these exist in hierarchical order 2
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Low priority needs take priority 5 General Types o Picture page 525 o Physiological Needs Basic human needs Ex:  Food, water, oxygen, base salary etc. o Safety Needs Safe physical and emotional environment Ex:  Safe jobs, benefits, job security, etc. o Belongingness Needs Desire to be accepted by peers 3
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o Esteem Needs Desire for positive self-image, receive recognition, etc. o Self-Actualization Needs Highest need category Need for self-fulfillment Developing one’s full potential, opportunity to grow o ERG Theory Clayton Alderfer’s modification of Maslow’s theory 3 Categories of needs Existence Needs o Needs for physical well-being Relatedness Needs o Needs for satisfactory relationships w/ others Growth Needs o Needs that focus on development of human potential and desire for  personal growth and increased competence Frustration-Regression Principle Failure to meet a high-order need may trigger a regression to an already fulfilled 
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This note was uploaded on 04/19/2008 for the course BUS 251 taught by Professor Nakhai during the Spring '08 term at Millersville.

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Chapter 16 - Chapter 16 Motivation 12:58 The Concept of...

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