minerals2 - MINERALS AND MINERALOIDS 1. Introduction 1.1...

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CVEN 3698 - Lecture Notes 5 Page 1 8 E. Nuhfer & B. Amadei MINERALS AND MINERALOIDS 1. Introduction 1.1 Organization of the Earth Materials The traditional organization of minerals in most geology student texts follows the so-called Berzelian system that arranges minerals according to chemical groups. The groups include: native elements (gold, graphite, diamond and sulfur), sulfides, sulfo salts, oxides, halides, carbonates, phosphates, sulfates, and silicates (the largest group of minerals). The Berzelian system was designed primarily for the purpose of curating collections and popularized in mineralogy texts used by generations of geology students. Presentation of the minerals by chemical groups provides a good means for organizing reference material but it is not necessarily the best organization of Earth mate- rials for an applied course because chemical groups differ from the assemblages encountered in the field. To overcome this problem, these notes first present minerals for the main purpose of learning about basic properties and terminology but present rocks and minerals together for the purpose of learning the materials in hand specimen as paragenetic suites. As already discussed in Lecture Notes 4, paragenesis refers to the sequence of deposition of minerals within a particular environment. Paragenetic suites refer to a sequence or grouping of minerals that are deposited together. The most basic examples of paragenetic suites are the three rock suites (sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic suites), and the hydrothermal mineral suite that forms its own separate mineral associations but may be found within any rock suite. Further paragenetic subdivisions within each suite are possible. For example, the sedimentary suite can be divided into the clastic suite, evaporite suite, diagenetic suite, and the organic suite. The hydrothermal suite may be subdivided as low temperature (epithermal), medium temperature (mesothermal), and high temperature (hypothermal). These lecture notes introduce you to the basic building blocks of the Earth - the minerals and mineraloids. Through careful study of specimens, you can learn to recognize most of them on sight. You should not try too hard to memorize all of these substances in hand specimen. Instead, strive to learn to see diagnostic physical properties and to mentally arrange specimens by associations into groups that will aid in later memory retention and in identification. 1.2 Identification of Minerals Two techniques are commonly used for identifying minerals. The first consists of examining hand specimens by visual inspection or using a hand lens. The second technique consists of examining thin slices of rock or of the mineral of interest. These slices ( thin sections ) are ground down to a thickness of 0.03 mm and are mounted on a microscope. The optical properties of minerals under natural or polarized light are then used for mineral identification. Most engineers use hand specimens.
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minerals2 - MINERALS AND MINERALOIDS 1. Introduction 1.1...

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