Chapter 4 - UNIVERSITY OF NORTH TEXAS School of...

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UNIVERSITY OF NORTH TEXAS School of Merchandising and Hospitality Management SMHM 4300 Survey of Beverages Spring 2006 (4) CLASS NOTES: Wine in General Wine is a beverage produced by the fermentation of the juices of fruits and particularly grapes. The scientific study of wine is known as enology. This field has two major subparts: viticulture =the cultivation of the vines and the harvesting of the grapes and viniculture =the making of wines from grapes. Grape vines are grown in temperate zones of the globe. Extremely cold or extremely hot and humid or hot and dry climate do not favor the growth of grape vines. Generally the vines for wine making are found as follows: (a) Northern Hemisphere between 30˚ and 52˚ Latitude (b) Southern Hemisphere between 15˚ and 42˚ Latitude There are thousands of grape varieties used to make wine. However, there are only two vine families, which are used to produce the majority of wines we drink today. (a) Vitis Vinefera - most common; found in Europe. Examples: Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon. (b) Vitis Lambrusca -found in North America. Examples: Concord, Catawba NOTE: In many instances Vitis Vinefera are grafted to Vitis Lambrusca vines to make them more resistant to wine disease. NOTE: We do have hybrid vines, which are a cross between Vitis Vinifera and Vitis Lambrusca. ( c) Hybrid Vines- primarily found in the Eastern Coast of the USA. Examples: Seyval Blanc, Baco Noir Vines are influenced by: (a) Climate (b) Soil (c) Vineyard practices by growers
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Terroir – essence of the soil The minimal growing average temperature for wine grapes is 50˚F (10˚) Climate: During the growing season, the sun provides both light and heat for the vine. The sun s light allows for photosynthesis to take place, which in turn allows for the production of food ( sugar), which is then stored as energy in the vine s fruit the grapes. As the growing season progresses more and more sugar is stored in the grapes. More intense levels of heat from the sun push the ripening process forward, and the grapes develop more and more of their typical flavor characteristics. As this is happening, the acidity level on grapes decreases. The goal of the grower is to monitor these levels and to make the decision as to when is the time where both sugar/acidity and tannins are in balance and thus harvest the grapes. The macroclimate of a wine region includes cool climates, which make distinctly different wines from warmer climates, since grapes retain higher levels of acidity resulting in crisper wines. On the other hand, warm-climate wines give us wines with noticeable fully flavors and a softer texture. But individual locations within a region the south facing side of a particular hill, for example can have a climatic reality that is different from the neighboring vineyards. The unique climatic reality of a specific location is called
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Chapter 4 - UNIVERSITY OF NORTH TEXAS School of...

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