PH150A_sp06mt1 - PH 150A Midterm I 2006 PM 58A ENTRQQUQYEQN...

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Unformatted text preview: PH 150A Midterm I 2006 PM 58A ENTRQQUQYEQN *E’Q EPEEEMEOLQG? ANQ HUMAN QESEASE UNEVERSE’FY Q? CALEFQRNEA» BERKELEY ’* SQHQQL QF 9QB£E€2 HEALfif MIDTERM EXAM — PHISO — SPRING, 2006 Name (please print): a g SID: {731] Copy your exam number onto each page of your exam before beginning this exam. '3 I hereby certify that the WenQW' ' he, and mine alone. // / / Ia 1; 'M::#r§rgnature WWW W 10f8 \ PH 150A Midterm i 2006 Exam #2 l l 52> PHESQA ENTRQDUC’FEQN T0 EPEBEMEQLQGY’ AND HQMAN Qi‘SEASE ElNéNEiSETY QF CALEFQRNEAr BERKEbE¥’* SQHQOL 8F 9U3U0 HEAL?H lVIIDTERlVl EXAM e PHISO — SPRING, 2006 *rkir‘k'kfi-kin'n?ickvbfink‘kkfiirfnbir‘kvhk‘kk if‘kif*****‘k7’r‘k‘k**7’f*‘k****“k‘k‘k****‘k Part I: Epidemiology and Public Health 1. Please answer the following questions based on the talk by Dr. Gary Shaw February 15, 2006 (2 points). . {tel-Te? > a. What disease does Dr. Shaw study? u . WWW 1gb. When two groups have the same risk, their odds ratio (OR) is approximately a 2. Circle all that apply (3 points): Epidemiology. . . 61.} determines the extent of disease in a community OCH I” ‘u' ‘ " I V I I u "T 1868 50'. _ identifies causes and risk factors for disease h studies the natural history of a disease “ {kT’ provides data for public policy ~= \. 3. Circle all that apply (3 points): Factors that contribute to the epidemiologic transition include... @childhood survival improves ' nr’gbjferti’lity inereases 7" WWWSC Wmmmremmmse fl giggreater percentage of population ages e a f. causes of death shift from infectious to chronic diseases ) 4. Circle all that apply (3 points): Examples of epidemiologic surveillance systems include... Nurses Health Study disease registries IKE/'1 reportable infectious diseases d?‘- hospital records A l I - * my? .3“ C3: sax ath certificates) Zof8 [2" PH 150A Midterm I 2006 Exam #1 i\ «9 5. Fill in the blanks with the BEST answer, putting ONE capital letter response per blank, based on the following choices: (7 points) , \ A. tertiary. prevention H. conflict of interest B. confidentiality I. beneficence C. jiistiee a, J. experimental studies I). observakinal studies K. descriptive epidemiology “ E. informed consent L. primary, prevention _. F. cross-sectional study M. ecologic fallacy G. secondaryprevention l). The San Francisco Department of Public Health started a syphilis screening program to identify early cases of the disease. This is an example of 6" 2). A study participant is encouraged to remain in a trial of a medication despite having severe side effects. This is a violation ofthe ethnical principle of £3 3). The Ugandan government distributes insecticide—treated bed nets to households to protect against mosquito bites. This is an example of WWW L. 4). Investigators must describe the nature of their study, including risks and benefits, before participants sign 2. 5). investi gators fail to use password protection for their data set, which includes personal information of participants. Their iaptop was stolen. {g} has been breached. 6). 53210 gic, cmntrol, crg§§§§gtignal and comm study designs are examples of 12—___- 7). Colon cancer rates in all 50 U.S. states are correlated with supermarket consumption indices to determine caloric intake. This study is a potential example of g E . Part 11: Study Design 6. Short Answer — please do not write more than one sentence for each answer. Your task is to research Whether contact with poultry increases the risk of contracting avian flu in _ _u. n. Turkey. (4 points) a. What epidemiologic study design is the best for exploring this question? fix 1 ‘2 f' w ‘1.- mr i“ 51‘: r-L- '_ \2,‘ ‘1, L" '4 " i b. Why is this the best study design? t”) ,. ..,, 7 r» .. bemuse. 3 of8 PH 150A Midterm I 2006 Exam #2“ c. What is/are the main exposure(s) of interest? CCtrMaei" coil vilttiyfi d. When would you measure the exposure(s) (ie past, present, future)? ’ e. What is/are the main outcomes(s) of interest? Cw ': e. i '1 «42 f. When would you measure the outcome(s) (i.e. past, present, future)? 1 t :4 .5, \K Cit; unit at? -‘ (tiff. ‘3 Cw a" l g- Describe one way you could assemble your study population. 1122):}; “avg K k f: at: 1”? iii/P it; Cl‘b'bi’m 7. Researchers in Nigeria conducted a survey of 500 children under 2 years old in 5 randomly selected villages in 2005 to determine the proportion of children less than 2 years old who have been appropriately vaccinated. They also looked at the proportion of factors such as family size, income, and parental education among those vaccinated compared to those not vaccinated. (5 points) 4of8 a. What is the study question? r» “tarsus as; ea, it m u (Pi is. A? i " / _ i r - v- ,. . a -\..r I ,t \."1- l "i i“ r- ‘1 I“ i L <4» 5 Vii“ s; is: _ Uni! t: LU— i (at g (flq‘ {are {KC}. EL?- ‘3 “V (Lt: [ tkw-ti (-3 b. What type of study design is this? F r“ \ n i: r'. ~ - . - n v" , 7“ 3 i a; < I“ i" ‘L'\- 1 \ f y-\ L f c. What is the study population? 5}.»er f, I gr 1” :2 LI iv L x {x "N , ,_>- '"‘ a, 7:: \u d. What is/are the main exposure(s) of interest? "\ a. "mama m i f \ (1 3‘4: fly: Wig ‘ if?»er x. *L i u Q ~‘ 't ’ r "f i f i e. What is/are the main outcome(s) of interest? Ly e e we. r 1 r v, 3 PH 150A Midterm12006 Exam #: i t .‘s, 8. in class on February 13, 2006, your GSIs discussed their research. Next to the study design each GSI talked about, fill in the exposure or outcome they were researching. Choose from the following exposures and outcomes (5 points): ... Exposures: folic acid intake, breast implants, high-fat diet, Ws Outcomes: stress, heart failure, diabetes, depression, enlarged prostate, colon cancer Study design , _Exposure., Case-control (Brian) 5/ A /' igjanfl; Cross-sectional (Nancy) v“ ffihosofgl factors “j: VProspective Cohort (Michelle) “'5’” “N . r-w- r _- Retrospective Cohort (Gem) / , «QC ncer mortality/ Randomized Control Trial (Amy);\SEvWirrrettd::—f7’/ WM-um-d‘“ V” k t? 9. The following are brief descriptions of studies on tuberculosis. Identify the type of study design for each one and put the ONE capital letter in each blank, using the following choices (4 points): I A. experimental trial E. cross-sectional B. case—control F. ecologic study , C. prospective cohort G. nested case-control g" l' ’ D. retrospective cohort Fill in the blank with the correct letter. A group of retired coal miners joined a study in 2006 to see if, via mine records, their exposure to coal dust betWeen l980-1990 increased their risk of developing tuberculosis between 2000—2005. {3" A cohort of physicians working with Medecins Sans Frontieres was followed between 1990 and 2005. in 2000, researchers decided to compare those who had gotten tuberculosis to those who had not in terms of whether they worked in urban or rural areas in poor countries. C: HIV—positive patients in Haiti are recruited to be in a study to examine whether or not treatment of HIV has an effect on the incidence of tuberculosis. They are followed for 10 years. i Recently diagnosed tuberculosis cases in rural India were randomly assigned to receive either DOTS (directly observed therapy) or the standard of care. They were followed for one year to determine whether they developed multi—drug resistant tuberculosis. For each study design, circle all the characteristics that apply: 10. Case—control studies (3 points) fiNflf“SfiS€‘3pfi-blmfe€fld‘l‘bifl€rw @Good for evaluating wide range of exposures W?“ WWW-es - fins} @Best for rare outcomes/diseases @Relatively inexpensive 5 Ofg my: A, ‘ PH 150A Midterm I 2006 Exam #:__J_\i:1—.____. 11. Cohrt studies (3 points) ' a».- legit. aw - a“: '0' ue-e ec e.‘0utcome must be measured in the future 5‘ . ess bias in assessing exposure \_7 List 2 advantages and 2 disadvantages for the foilowing study designs: {mm lined t 12. Randomized control trial (4 points) Advantage-82L (ngéfi (\ :; Q-«({\\A,g; km ‘ f; 2 \ CNN - NFC pk L Disadv antrajcgas'?” :- /";I ‘5” (1" t a?“ dis“ . 13. Cross-sectional (4 points) Advantages: - Cj‘h as. a 7* A :2; “ CL with ’C EC." {3‘6 b (tbfi Dmadvafltages; W five?! 49952 d "s g c; 9 a»; bum “ 3 v 4‘ ,. a ska C“: *\ fi‘HKK ‘h/"L—xfi n T? r W 60f8 5527. PHISOA Midtermizooé Exam #1 EL- 4- ' Part III: Error and Bias 14. Label the type of error illustrated in each picture. (2 points) Fill in the blanks with the 13EST answer. putting ONEFeaapithet-ter’andatsreefi‘espending answer per blank, based on the following chorces: (6 points) A. specificity " 1. internal validity “ B. effectiveness " J. selection bias m C. information bias ‘— K. reliability " D. systematic error... L. random error " E. matching M. blinding F. sensitivity N. target population G. efficacy 0. external validity " H. accuracy V 15. A hospital study avoids telling the doctors who is in the study until after patients receive their diagnoses. This technique is called Nat . la tin an»; , and is used to minimize a a w §:‘€"L'4{i§“‘- tags 16. Inwaflfljlilatiombased sample, study participants are asked to report the average number of nimute‘séytheslspendcomniuting to work each day. Infinswers will‘lilZely have i an (W1 L: 6% 43 FR) um I 17. A randomized controlled trial was conducted on a new vaccine for dengue. Nurses administered the vaccine or placebo to 1,000 healthy study participants. At the end of the study, people who got the vaccine were much less likely to be infected with dengue, This study can conclude that the vaccine had high 5/”; {ii-ls: fiat: 18. A new diagnostic test has been developed to identify rotavirus. It consistently identifies those \ E who do not have rotavirus correctly. The test has excellent a” _ m; 2“ .- i r ) 4;: w 19. A study which unable to genergihzgits results to the targetpopulation would be said to have poor 7 of 8 ' y ax PH 150A MidterleOOtS Exam #: i % 3 Multiple Choice — choose the ONE correct answer for each problem v m i= 1 i ’s f, ‘x 20. In order to achieve mammum i" ‘ WW ' a? \ ,researchers ran assays on two blood samples each time their patients came in for an appointment. a sensitivity effec ’ s c. specificity f/d‘i‘irEiim .t _ KMLJ 21. Pregnant women are asked to report how many glasses of wine they drink a week Their Mm [ 5 mm responsgsflilLlilgely have CM 5 4-; <5? its/w . .;4 < a. systematic error x- ,- Gm 80f8 ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/19/2008 for the course PH 150A taught by Professor Adams during the Spring '08 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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PH150A_sp06mt1 - PH 150A Midterm I 2006 PM 58A ENTRQQUQYEQN...

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