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Exam 4 Study Guide - Fall 2006 Chapter 8 1...

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Fall, 2006 Chapter 8 1. Intelligence --Ability to understand complex ideas --Adapt effectively to the environment --Learn from experience --Engage in various forms of reasoning --Overcome obstacles by taking thought 2. Spearman’s theory of intelligence --Intelligence consists of a single factor known as g, which represents a general intellectual ability. 3. g factor; s factors g factor— s factor-- 4. Thurstone’s theory of intelligence --Identified seven primary mental abilities: verbal comprehension, numerical ability, spatial relations, perceptual speed, word fluency, memory, and reasoning that, singly or in combination, are involved in all intellectual activities. 5. Sternberg’s theory of intelligence --Three types of intelligence: componential, experimental, and contextual. 6. Gardner’s theory of intelligence --There are eight independent forms of intelligence: linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic. 7. Binet’s work --Tested school kids in 1904 and created the Stanford-Binet intelligence scale based on the results. 8. Stanford-Binet intelligence scale --Test items on the scale were ordered according to difficulty, with the easiest item first and each succeeding item becoming more difficult. --A person would take the test and go as far as they could, then the results would be compared to people of the same age. 9. Intelligence quotient (IQ), how it is calculated --IQ--- (Mental age / Chronological age) X 100 = IQ --Results are 10. Norms --Standards based on the test scores of a large number of individuals and used as a bases of comparison for other test takers. 11. Wechsler intelligence scales (WAIS, WISC) --Individual intelligence test for adults that yields separate verbal and performance on IQ’s scores and overall IQ score. 12. Reliability --Ability of a test to yield nearly the same score when the same people are tested and then retested on the same test or an alternative form of the test 13. Validity --Ability of a test to measure what it is intended to measure 14. Standardization --Process of establishing both norms for interpreting scores on a test and standard procedures for administering the test. 15. Aptitude test --A Test designed to predict a person’s achievement or performance at some future time. 16. The bell curve --A graph of the frequencies of all test scores or results usually conforms to a bell-shaped distribution. 17. Terman’s study of “genius” --Longitudinal study, were people with genius IQ’s were measured throughout their lives. He assumed that IQ was fixed at birth. 18. Mental retardation --Subnormal intelligence reflected by an IQ below 70 and by adaptive functioning that is severely deficient for one’s age.
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