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Lecture 12-13 Effective Business Writing – Chapter 4 1. How are oral and written communication similar and different from each other?Oral- typically synchronous,Written- typically asynchronous, Both- share 8 basic communication components,-use verbals and non verbaWhat is the difference between verbal and nonverbal
communication What are internal communication and external communicatio What are the three styles of writing? How do you figure out which style to use-Colloquial: Informal, conversational style. May use slang or local expressions.-Casual:Familiar, everyday expressions. Doesn’t emphasize hierarchy or social rank.Formal:Professional expression. Emphasizes rules, regulations, and order.Verbal communication is the use of words to convey a message. Some forms of verbalcommunication are. written and oral communication. Nonverbal communication is the use of body language to convey a message.One main form of nonverbalcommunication is body language.Internalcommunication is information and ideas exchange within the organization itself, whileexternalcommunication meansexchange of information both within the organization itself and outside the organization. Howcannot sweating the small stuff (e.g., grammar and spelling) impactpeople’s perception of you?What is bypassing? When can it occur?Bypassinginvolves the misunderstanding that occurs when the receiver completely misses thesource's intended meaning. Words mean different things to different people in different contexts. All that difference allows for both source and receiver tocompletely miss one another's intended goal.7. What are the 6 basic qualities of good business writing?1. Follows the rules 2. Is easy to read; 3. Attracts the reader;4. Meets the reader’s expectations; 5. Is clear and concise; and 6. Is efficient and effective. Lecture12-13 Writing Preparation – Chapter 51. How can confirmationbias, egocentrism, and sociocentrism impact writing and critical thinking? How do these concepts interact with each other?confirmation bias: if you only payattention to information that reinforces your existing beliefs and ignore or discredit information that contradicts your beliefs -egocentrism:related concepts toconfirmation bias. can be defined as the use of self-centered standards to determine what to believe and what to reject.sociocentrism: the belief that one's ownsociety or group is superior to others. society-centered standards. - all create a thinking of us vs. Them2. Who determines if a source/message sender is credible?CRAAP test (source evaluation)- someone whose writing shows currency, relevance, authority, accuracy, purpose - is there any bias?- no plagiarism.Sweating thesmallstuff is to worry about minor issues or problems. If I am someone who does not care about little things such as "I apologized for the mistakes I have made inthe past" vs. "I am sorry for that stuff I did, "the reader may think I am unprofessional. Someone who is not sweating the mall stuff tends to be "easy-going" or"chill." However, pay attention to the detail when writing and correct mistakes before presentingWhat are strengths, weaknesses, and expectations ofcommunication channels? When and for which audiences should you use each channel? Check out Table 5.1.Formal, informal, face to face, written4. Why do youneed to give credit to your sources in written communication? What’s plagiarism?plagiarism: stealing other people's intellectual property and experiences (copying,rewriting, etc.)- giving credit or citing other people helps you avoid plagiarism. this way it doesn't give off the impression that the written material was yourintellectual property or your idea.5. Why is it important to evaluate your sources? How do you do that?- CRAAP test - makes sure that your sources are credible andrelevant to your writing piece.6. What’s the difference between analyzing and reading a document?reading- grasp the meaning, - come away with the feeling - getthe main idea mostly .Analyzing- pay close attention,challenge content provided,come away with more recall of the facts- be able to question or challenge theconceptsHow does document design and organization impact understanding?- they matter overall and on an individual level, use active rather than passive voice bedirect, clear, succinct rather than verbiage focus on content and application of content of idea 6).What are general purposes in writing? Be able to identify them inexamples.Inform, persuade, entertain, facilitate, interaction, and motivate a reader9. What are guidelines for adding emphasis in documents?chapter 6 -1. Howdo ethos, pathos, and logos work in business writing? 1. Ethos, or your credibility, will come through with your choice of sources and authority on the subject(s)2.Yourlogos, or the logic of your thoughts represented across the document, will allow the reader to come to understand the relationships among who, what, where,when, and so forth. If your readers cannot follow your logic, they will lose interest, fail to understand your message, and possibly not even read it at all. 3.pathos, orpassion and enthusiasm, will be reflected in your design and word choices. If your document fails to convey enthusiasm for the subject, how can you expect thereader to be interested2. What do effective sentences look like? Focus on p. 169-171Simple sentence. Sales have increased.Compound sentence. Sales haveincreased and profits continue to grow.Complex sentence. Sales have increased and we have the sales staff to thank for it.Compound complex sentence.Althoughthe economy has been in recession, sales have increased, and we have sales staff to thank for it.3. How do you determine when to use informal v.formal/bureaucratic styleFormal- Please note the attached delivery data for July 2009. Informal - Here is the delivery data for last month.Formalstyles oftenrequire more detail, adhere to rules of etiquette, and avoid shortcuts like contractions and folksy expressions.Informalstyles reflect everyday speech patterns andmay include contractions and colloquial expressions.4. What is conversational tone? What’s jargon? Aconversational tone, as the name implies, resembles oralcommunication in style, tone, and word choice. It can be appropriate for some audiences, and may serve you well in specific contexts, but it can easily come acrossas less than professional. Conversational writing aims at the target audience and addresses them. Sentences may begin with pronouns and end with verbs.Sentences may even begin with "and," "but," and "yet." Simply put, writing in a conversational tone makes an article sounds like a conversation between two peoplerather than a textbook.Jargonis a vocabulary that has been developed by people in a particular group, discipline, or industry, and it can be a useful shorthand aslong as the audience knows its meaning. For example, when writing for bank customers, you could refer to "ATM transactions" and feel confident that your readerswould know what you meant. It would be unnecessary and inappropriate to write "Automated Teller Machine transactions." Similarly, if you were working in ahospital, you would probably use many medical terms in your interactions with other medical professionals. However, if you were a hospital employee writing to apatient, using medical jargon would be inappropriate, as it would not contribute to the patient's understanding.5. What are active and passive voice? Be able toidentify them and use them in writing.A - All sales orders are processed daily by Mackenzie. B - Mackenzie processes all sales orders daily.Sentence A is written inthe active voice—a sentence structure in which the subject carries out the action. Sentence B is written in passive voice—a sentence structure in which the subjectreceives the action. Activesentences tend to be shorter, more precise, and easier to understand. This is especially true because passive sentences can be written inways that do not tell the reader who the doer of the action is. For example, "All sales orders are processed daily" is a complete and correct sentence in the passivevoice. Active voice is the clear choice for a variety of contexts, but not all. When you want to emphasize the doer of the action, you may write, "Ten late arrivals wererecorded this month" and not even mention who was late. The passive form doesn't place blame or credit, so it can be more diplomatic in some contexts.Passivevoiceallows the writer to avoid personal references or personal pronouns (he, she, they) to create a more objective tone. There are also situations where the doer ofthe action is unknown, as in "graffiti was painted on the side of our building last night."6)What is Toulmin’s 3-part rhetoricalstrategy? What does that look like inan example?Toulmin's rhetorical strategyis useful to make a claim explicit, clearly illustrates the relationship between the request and the data and allows thereader to follow the writer's reasoning 1.Chain, statement of belief or truth 2.Data, supporting reasons for the claim 3.Warrant, create the connection between theclaim and the support reasons8. What are fallacies in writing?"Fallacy" is another way of saying false logic. Fallacies or rhetorical tricks deceive your audience withtheir style, drama, or pattern, but add little to your document in terms of substance. They are best avoided because they can actually detract from youreffectiveness. There are several techniques or "tricks" that allow the writer to rely on style without offering a substantive argument, to obscure the central message,or twist the facts for their own gain. The fallacy is a way of saying false logic.9. What are the steps to paraphrasing?Another common strategy in businesswriting isto paraphrase or rewritethe information in your own words. You will relate the main point but need to take care not to copy the original.Read the passage out loud,paying attention to the complete thought rather than the individual words. Explain the concept in your own words to a friend or colleague, out loud, face-to-face.Write the concept in your own words and add one or more illustrative examples of the concept that are meaningful to you. Reread the original passage and see howyour version compares with it in terms of grammar, word choice, example, and conveyance of meaning. If your writing parrots the original passage or merelysubstitutes synonyms for words in the original, return to step one and start over, remembering that your goal is to express the central concepts, not to "translate"one word into another. when you are satisfied that your expression of the concept can stand on its own merit, include it in your document and cite the originalauthor as the source of the idea. Revisingand Presenting Your Writing – Chapter 7 1. What are four categories that require revision in a document? Be able toidentify them in examples.1. Evaluate content: Content will address the central questions of who, what, where, when, and why. For example, what is your primarypurpose in this document? Have you explained it clearly to the reader? Have you included the content that corresponds to the given assignment, left any information--
out that may be necessary to fulfill the expectations, or have you gone beyond the assignment directions?

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Term
Winter
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Writing, Complex compound sentence

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