3) What is the altruist objection to the theory of rational self-interest?
The idea of altruism, is a further caring in “The Other” over “Self”.
Self-interest can be
viewed as selfishness, which is against the idea of altruism.
A true altruist is an unselfish
person, who cherishes the chance to do something positive for “The Other” over “Self”.
How does the theory of rational self-interest respond to the altruist by means of
enlightened and un-enlightened self interest?
An un-enlightened person cannot be altruistic, because they are justifiably selfish by
means of their actions and choices.
An Enlightened person cares for “The Other” which
is the primary idea of altruism, and concerns for “The Other” over “Self”.
But by caring
for “The Other” in such a way, the person’s own self image is boosted by doing such a
Thus, also gaining from the exchange.
A theme taught in the musical
in the song
“When You Help Others”
Where the characters sing “When you
help others, you can’t help helping yourself.”
Through good deeds, we are rewarded in
an psychological way.
5) What are the main ideas of the harm principal?
It is a principle that offers ethical guidance about when to exercise freedom, crucial to the
realization of our happiness, deserves to be constrained.
Through this, we can judge what
conduct is impermissible and thus causes harm.
What are the three forms of harm discussed in Ch 4?
Give Examples of each.
A) Harm to Others:
Each person has the right to their own mind, and body, and no other
person should force or coerce any change upon another person that would harm them in
mind or body.
An example of this is physical abuse to another person.
Harm to Self:
Each person should be protected from themselves.
This can be looked
at in many ways, keeping an unknowing child from placing their hand on a hot stove, or
keeping a person from killing themselves.
Both are forms of self harm, which
stopped, even though the person does have a right to their own body, it is our civic duty
to protect said individuals.
Suicide is a very good example of this, as is drug use.
This type of harm is different in that it has less of a basis in legal
documentation, and more in moral ideals.
Things such as pornography and sodomy are
considered to be impersonal harm.
They might be done in the privacy of ones own home,
and may not be against a law, but are morally and ethically wrong.