Eithics 1 - Section 1 Week 2 Ch 2-4 3 What is the altruist...

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Section 1: Week 2: Ch 2-4 3) What is the altruist objection to the theory of rational self-interest? The idea of altruism, is a further caring in “The Other” over “Self”. Self-interest can be viewed as selfishness, which is against the idea of altruism. A true altruist is an unselfish person, who cherishes the chance to do something positive for “The Other” over “Self”. 4) How does the theory of rational self-interest respond to the altruist by means of enlightened and un-enlightened self interest? An un-enlightened person cannot be altruistic, because they are justifiably selfish by means of their actions and choices. An Enlightened person cares for “The Other” which is the primary idea of altruism, and concerns for “The Other” over “Self”. But by caring for “The Other” in such a way, the person’s own self image is boosted by doing such a good deed. Thus, also gaining from the exchange. A theme taught in the musical Avenue Q in the song “When You Help Others” Where the characters sing “When you help others, you can’t help helping yourself.” Through good deeds, we are rewarded in an psychological way. 5) What are the main ideas of the harm principal? It is a principle that offers ethical guidance about when to exercise freedom, crucial to the realization of our happiness, deserves to be constrained. Through this, we can judge what conduct is impermissible and thus causes harm. 6) What are the three forms of harm discussed in Ch 4? Give Examples of each. A) Harm to Others: Each person has the right to their own mind, and body, and no other person should force or coerce any change upon another person that would harm them in mind or body. An example of this is physical abuse to another person. B) Harm to Self: Each person should be protected from themselves. This can be looked at in many ways, keeping an unknowing child from placing their hand on a hot stove, or keeping a person from killing themselves. Both are forms of self harm, which should be stopped, even though the person does have a right to their own body, it is our civic duty to protect said individuals. Suicide is a very good example of this, as is drug use. C) Impersonal Harm: This type of harm is different in that it has less of a basis in legal documentation, and more in moral ideals. Things such as pornography and sodomy are considered to be impersonal harm. They might be done in the privacy of ones own home, and may not be against a law, but are morally and ethically wrong.
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7) What is the relationship between persons and rights under the harm principle? The ideas of persons and rights are important to interrelate for the consideration of the harm principle. Person is often used to identify anything that deserves rights, often animals. The idea of rights has been a legal and political bargaining point since the seventeenth century. The relationship between the two rests in the idea that rights are allocated to persons. I have the right to vote at the age of 18. I have the right to drink responsibly at the age of 21.
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