Eithics 2 - Ch 12-13 1 Discuss the relationship between the...

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Ch 12-13 1) Discuss the relationship between the biological term human and the moral term person. How are they different and why? A person has rights of some sort. The right to choose diet or regular, the right to vote, who knows what they might be, but the idea of rights are associated with the term “person”. Human is anything that is defined as homo-sapien. There is a scientific denotation to “human” which can span any person with or without rights. Examples of humans, who did not have rights, and by these definitions were not “persons” would be slaves, often a minority who is oppressed, and unborn fetuses. 2) With respect to animals, what is the difference between direct and indirect duties? A direct duty is more on the idea of taking care of and protecting animals. Normally due to a sentimental and emotional value we place upon them. An indirect duty is more of the idea of not harming animals. We don’t have a sentimental value or emotional investment in the animal, however we respect someone else’s wishes and do not wish or cause harm upon the said animals. 3) Explain the basic theory of contractarianism. The view that morality can be expressed as a contract, and morality applies to those who can sign it. Animals are not applicable, because they cannot understand morality. However young children are applicable because they are covered by their parents. A loving relationship with someone who can sign or understand a contract, thus morality, can normally exempt a creature from this rule. 4) What is Regan’s argument against contractarianism? Regan uses the Cruelty-Kindness defense, and Utilitarianism to aruge contractarianism. The Cruelty-Kindness defense offers that one is good, and one is bad, however neither gives us the ability to judge between right and wrong. And the Utilitarianism defense offers that if it is for the greater good, then the action is right.
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