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040507 - 040506 HIST278 First Sino-Japanese War 1905...

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040506 – HIST278 Class 16 1985 – First Sino-Japanese War 1905 – Japanese gain S. Mancuria R.R. 1915 – Twenty-one Demands 1919 – Versailles 1928 – Zhang Zuolin killed 1931 – Manchurian incident 1936 – Xi’an Incident 1937 – July: luguoqiao (Marco Polo Bridge) August – November: Shanghai December: entrance to Nanjing I. Motivation behind Manchurian Incident a. Ideology behind Japan – sees itself as a competitor on the world stage, sees itself as a great power. Great powers need empires for resources to compete – Manchuria is a resource. By 1910 Korea is a resource/colony, Taiwan…etc. Larger concept of conflict/competition with other great powers. The idea of colonizing/impetus for it becomes a greater idea after 1918. Certain events happen to strengthen the hand of the people that want action/colonization. Depression – sets up perceived economic need for control over Manchuria. b. Informal control over politics through their connection through Zhang Zuolin (powerful warlord), but with the rise of the KMT, he Zhang creates an alliance with Chiang Kai-Shek. Japanese in Manchuria is concerned that the central government is going to assert control over country – including concessions. First thing they do is assassinate Zhang Zuolin – so he can’t be an important cog in KMT control over the Northeast. c. Next move was more drastic – Manchurian Incident i. Chiang Kai-Shek and Nationalist government weren’t directly confronting the Japanese but were more subtly undermining their governmental control. Japanese army officers on the ground that were responsible for protecting the Japanese railroad (S. Manchuria railroad) blew up a section (3-foot!) of railroad and blamed it on the Chinese – impetus for annexing/taking Manchuria. ii. End result? Took Manchuria, renamed it Manchukuo. Puppet government. 1. Japanese government wasn’t necessarily planning this outcome. The officers on the ground were taking things into their own hand – a pattern within the Japanese military, lower-level going against/subverting the upper- level. Going against their superiors – don’t necessarily
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