American History Review u2013 Exam 1 - American History...

This preview shows page 1 - 3 out of 8 pages.

American History Review – Exam 1 Reconstruction After the Civil War, Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson took moderate approaches to unify the North and the South o Johnson, hostile to Congress, offered the South easy terms for reentering o Southerners exploited this opportunity and adopted oppressive Black Codes and put ex-Confederates in power With a socioeconomic divide between the North and the South, postwar Republicans faced two problems o Restoring rebellious states to the Union o Defining the role of emancipated slaves The South o Intense resistance to Reconstruction The Reconstruction Act of 1867 divided the conquered South into five family districts each under the command of a US general. Before a state could be readmitted in to the Union, the former Confederate states had to grant the vote to freedmen and deny it to leading ex-Confederates, thus guaranteeing black suffrage. The new legislature must also ratify the 14 th Amendment. 1868: Radical Republican’s impeach Andrew Johnson and put the south under military rule. The Second phase of Reconstruction o Republican government tried to transform the South’s economic and social institutions o Civil Rights Acts o Freedmen’s Bureau o 14 th Amendment – defined US citizenship o 15 th Amendment – formally gave voting rights to formerly enslaved men Ultimately – Reconstruction opened a chasm between the goals of freedmen and policymakers o Freedmen – wanted autonomy because they counted on cotton to fuel economic growth o Policymakers – wanted to reincorporate ex-Confederates in the nation and build a powerful national economy The boom-bust economic cycle The pattern of boom and bust in the late 19 th - century has become an aspect of capitalism Boom years from 1877 o Unusually high level of rainfall on the plains o Homestead Act of 1862 (which granted 160 acres of public land to any family who committed to farm it for 5 years)
o Lavish allocations of territory to the railway companies o With a new mood of optimism mortgages were easily available Bust strikes in 1887 o In January a blizzard swept the plains – killing crops and livestock o A summer of drought follows o Happens for 10 years o International prices for wheat drop 30% o Easy credit dries up Economy collapse o The argument becomes gold versus silver Labor crises Non-white immigration After Reconstruction most businesses and government leaders concluded that the success of US industrialization had a downside: overproduction and under-consumption. This consensus discounted the impact that industrialization had on the individual. o They worried about the implications of non-white and non-Protestant immigration and potential growth of labor unions Racism and xenophobia The gender crisis of the 1890s The 1890s The Progressive Movement After Wilson’s election as president, a new Progressive Era emerged o His election was a political rehabilitation of the Democratic Party o

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture