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American History Review – Exam 1 Reconstruction After the Civil War, Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson took moderate approaches to unify the North and the South oJohnson, hostile to Congress, offered the South easy terms for reentering oSoutherners exploited this opportunity and adopted oppressive Black Codes and put ex-Confederates in powerWith a socioeconomic divide between the North and the South, postwar Republicans faced two problems oRestoring rebellious states to the Union oDefining the role of emancipated slaves The South oIntense resistance to Reconstruction The Reconstruction Act of 1867 divided the conquered South into five family districts each under the command of a US general. Before a state could be readmitted in to the Union, the former Confederate states had to grant the vote to freedmen and deny it to leading ex-Confederates, thus guaranteeing black suffrage. The new legislature must also ratify the 14thAmendment. 1868: Radical Republican’s impeach Andrew Johnson and put the south under military rule. The Second phase of Reconstruction oRepublican government tried to transform the South’s economic and social institutions oCivil Rights Acts oFreedmen’s Bureauo14thAmendment – defined US citizenship o15thAmendment – formally gave voting rights to formerly enslaved men Ultimately – Reconstruction opened a chasm between the goals of freedmen and policymakers oFreedmen – wanted autonomy because they counted on cotton to fuel economic growth oPolicymakers – wanted to reincorporate ex-Confederates in the nation and build a powerful national economy The boom-bust economic cycle The pattern of boom and bust in the late 19th- century has become an aspect of capitalism Boom years from 1877oUnusually high level of rainfall on the plains oHomestead Act of 1862 (which granted 160 acres of public land to anyfamily who committed to farm it for 5 years)
oLavish allocations of territory to the railway companies oWith a new mood of optimism mortgages were easily available Bust strikes in 1887oIn January a blizzard swept the plains – killing crops and livestock oA summer of drought follows oHappens for 10 yearsoInternational prices for wheat drop 30% oEasy credit dries upEconomy collapse oThe argument becomes gold versus silver Labor crisesNon-white immigrationAfter Reconstruction most businesses and government leaders concluded that the success of US industrialization had a downside: overproduction and under-consumption. This consensus discounted the impact that industrialization had on the individual. oThey worried about the implications of non-white and non-Protestant immigration and potential growth of labor unions Racism and xenophobia The gender crisis of the 1890sThe 1890s The Progressive MovementAfter Wilson’s election as president, a new Progressive Era emerged oHis election was a political rehabilitation of the Democratic Party o