study guide - 1 Change is important in theories of personal...

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1. Change is important in theories of personal identity because we are constantly changing physically, mentally, and emotionally. For example, the ship of Theseus. Although the ship’s original material changed, the crew stayed the same. The people that drove the ship and represented the original boat were the same. The “body” changed but the “spirit” of the ship stayed the same. 2. Universal doubt means suspending all beliefs and having no assumptions. The steps Descartes went through are as follows: a) Knowledge comes to him through senses b) Senses sometimes deceive him c) Doubt in all knowledge based on senses d) God deceives me (not to admit any idea might be false) and there is an evil demon Descartes thinks we are born with certain innate ideas that must be true (ex: God) 3. a) I exist because I persuaded myself of something b) I think therefore I am c) What am I? -> a thinking thing -> mind, intellect, reason, and understanding Characteristics: Mind – conscious of yourself, we are capable of knowledge that doesn’t depend on senses (innate ideas), mind is non-physical, and mind is the essence of human nature (defines us and makes us who we are). Body – 1) infinite substances (God) and 2) finite substances (mind and matter) Dualistic theory – composite of mind (thinking substance) and body (physical substance). GHOST in a
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