The British Empire - The British Empire From 1660 to the...

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The British Empire From 1660 to the 1750 s, the English Empire, later known as the British Empire was initiated by Charles II who took the throne in 1660. Seeing what the Dutch had created through trade, Charles II allowed the English government to pass the Navigation Acts, which excluded Dutch ships from its colonies, starting a war to enforce this new legislation. By the 1720 s the unified kingdom of Great Britain had taken control of commerce in the Atlantic which strengthened English monopoly on trade in the colonies. The restoration colonies created by wealthy aristocrats were compromised of the Carolinas, New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania, which Charles II granted in lieu of payments of his debts. The Carolinas were governed by a manorial system, a society in which a mass of serfs would be governed by a small number of powerful nobles which only proved to be a fantasy. In order to grow the Carolinas relied heavily on slave labor. They encouraged their Indian trading partners to do the same by taking captives from other Native American peoples and exchange them for alcohol and guns. After Pennsylvania became known for being the most open and democratic of the Restoration Colonies, the English government began to devise policies to keep colonial trade in English hands through a series of Navigation Acts and mercantilism . Navigation Acts were created to produce staple crops and consume British manufactured goods by colonies. Within these acts, Americans were prohibited from selling colonial-made textiles, hats, and iron products such as plows, axes, and skillets. Mercantilism meant that colonies would produce agricultural goods and raw materials that English merchants would export to England. This act excluded Dutch merchants from English colonies and required the total ruling and power of trade to be held only by English ships and merchants. This led to the ban on foreign traders and stipulated that the
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