Exam #2 Study Guide

Exam #2 Study Guide - Study Guide Exam 2 Chapter 6...

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Study Guide – Exam 2 Chapter 6 Consciousness- our moment-to-moment awareness of ourselves, and our environment; involves selective attention to ongoing thoughts, perceptions, and feelings; subjective, dynamic, self-reflective, and central to our sense of identity; enhances our ability to adapt to our environment. It makes information available to brain regions involved in planning and decision-making. It also helps us to cope with novel situations and override impulsive and autopilot behaviors. o External- lights on, professor talking, warmer inside o Internal- (sensations or reactions) hungry, heart-racing o Self-aware- yourself, listening o Thoughts- metacognition; why do I have a pit in my stomach? Freud- believed that the mind has conscious, preconscious, and unconscious levels. He viewed the unconscious as a reservoir of unacceptable desires and repressed experiences. Levels of Consciousness o Controlled- the conscious use of attention and effort; slower than automatic, but more flexible and open to change (choosing to pay attention vs. not paying attention to outside) Selective Attention- a cognitive process that focuses awareness on some stimuli to the exclusion of others o Automatic - (unconscious) can be performed without conscious awareness as often; can reduce our chances of finding new ways to approach problems (getting dressed in the morning) Divided attention- the ability to perform more than 1 activity at the same time; multitasking (eating & listening) o Lowered - asleep; not conscious Circadian, Infradian, and Ultradian Rhythms o Circadian - biological cycles within the body that occur on an approximately 24-hour cycle; regulate many bodily processes and influence our alertness and readiness for sleep (sleeping) o Infradian - hibernation, migration, menstrual cycle o Ultraradian - hunger > happens more than 3 times a day Waves o Beta Waves- pattern of 15-30 cycles per second that is characteristic of humans who are in an alert waking stage o Alpha Waves- pattern of 8-12 cycles per second that is characteristic of humans in a relaxed, drowsy state o Delta Waves- low frequency, high amplitude brain waves that occur in stage 3 sleep and predominate in stage 4; large and slow o Slow-Wave Sleep- stages 3 and 4 of sleep, in which EEG pattern shows large, slow brain waves (delta) Sleep Spindles- periodic 1-2 second bursts of rapid brain-wave activity Stages of Sleep o Non-REM Sleep- stages 1-4; slow waves occur Stage 1- a form of light sleep from which you can easily be awakened; only spend a few minutes in this stage; some people experience dreams, vivid images, and sudden body jerks Stage 2- sleep spindles begin to appear; muscles are more relaxed, breathing and heart rate are slower, dreams may occur, and you are harder to awaken Stage 3 & 4- appearance of delta waves become regular; your body is relaxed, activity in various parts of the brain have decreased, you are harder to awaken, and you may have dreams
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