Week__10_Answers - STUDY QUESTIONS (Lectures 34-37) 1) Two...

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STUDY QUESTIONS (Lectures 34-37) 1) Two species of plants grow on Mt. Rainier at distinct but adjoining elevational ranges (see below). You would like to design an experiment to determine whether species A and B have non-overlapping fundamental niches or whether they have different realized niches because of competition. In the spaces provided below, describe 4 alternative hypotheses concerning these species ranges, design a critical experiment to test your hypotheses, and outline the predictions under each hypothesis. Use the diagrams at the bottom of the page to contrast realized and fundamental niches under the four alternative hypotheses. Hypotheses : Species A Species B Critical Experiment: Grow species A at lower elevations alone and together with species B. Grow species B at upper elevations alone and together with species A. Predictions: elevation abundance elevation elevation elevation UNDER H1: UNDER H2: UNDER H3: UNDER H4: Species A fundamental niche Species A realized niche Species B fundamental niche Species B realized niche H1: The fundamental niches of A and B occur at distinct elevations. H2: The fundamental niche of A is restricted to high elevation, but B’s fundamental niche spans a wide set of elevations H3: The fundamental niche of B is restricted to low elevation, but A’s fundamental niche spans a wide set of elevations H4: The fundamental niches of A and B both span a wide set of elevations. Under H1: Species A will not grow at lower elevations alone or in competition; species B will not grow at upper elevations alone or in competition. Under H2: Species B grows at upper elevations but only when alone (without A); species A will not grow at lower elevations (either alone or in competition). Under H3: Species A grows at lower elevations but only when alone (without B); but species B will not grow at upper elevations (either alone or in competition). Under H4: Species B grows at upper elevations but only when alone and species A grows at lower elevations but only when alone.
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2) What is a keystone predator? What evidence supports the claim that starfish in the genus Pisaster is a keystone predator in the coastal environments of Washington state? A keystone predator is a predator that (while not necessarily very abundant) has very large effects on community structure/diversity (number and types of species present and their relative abundance). When starfish were excluded from study plots, species richness declines to very low levels compared to study plots where Pisaster is present. The presence of this predator appears to have a large effect on community structure. 3) You move to the Midwest and buy a farm. One year, you decide to let a field go fallow (i.e. you plant no crops).
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This note was uploaded on 04/20/2008 for the course BIOL 180 taught by Professor Freeman during the Winter '07 term at University of Washington.

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Week__10_Answers - STUDY QUESTIONS (Lectures 34-37) 1) Two...

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