ENDOCRINOLOGY[1]

ENDOCRINOLOGY[1] - ENDOCRINE SYSTEM I. Functions a....

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Unformatted text preview: ENDOCRINE SYSTEM I. Functions a. Maintain homeostasis by regulating BP, electrolytes, temp. b. Secretions act in concert w/ NS to help body react to stress c. Major regulator of growth & development II. Definitions a. Endocrine system i. System of organs & tissues that produces hormones b. Hormones i. Molecules secreted into blood that serve as messenger molecules to alter the activity of target cells 1. types a. Endocrine b. Paracrine c. Autocrine c. Target cells i. Cells that have specific receptor proteins that recognize & bind to a specific hormone III. Relationship Between Nervous System & Endocrine System a. 2 communication systems that work together to coordinate complex physiologic processes b. NS works like a telephone system==info travels rapidly along discrete pathways c. Endo System works like a radio transmitter=broadcasts signals in all directions i. Hormones secreted into bloodtravels everywhere before reaches target ii. Hormone signals travel slower than neural iii. NS & ES talk to e/o 1. hormones influence NS fx & neural activity influences hormone secretion IV. Types of Physiologic Process Regulated by Hormones a. Digestion & metabolism of nutrients b. Water & electrolyte balance c. Growth & development d. Reproduction V. Types of Hormones a. Steroids i. Made from cholesterol ii. EX: androgens, estrogen, aldosterone, cortisol b. Amine hormones i. NH2 group ii. EX: thyroid hormones, adrenal medulla hormones Epi, NE c. Peptide hormones i. Amino acids (AA) ii. EX:insulin, GH, FSH, LH VI. Mechanism of hormone action a. Steroid hormone i. Diffuses into target cellbinds to specific R in nucleus stimulates of inhibits transcription of specific genesmRNA is translated at ribosomessynthesis of specific proteins b. Peptide hormones i. Binds to R on target cell surface ii. Activates a 2 nd messenger, which causes a change in target cell activityoften by phosphorylation iii. EX: of 2 nd messenger molecule is cAMP c. Amine hormones i. Have properties of both steroid & peptide mechanism of action VII. Regulation of Hormone Control by Feedback a. Negative Feedback i. Most common form in body ii. Hormone induces a change which serves as a signal to further inhibit the secretion of that hormone iii. EX: thermostat b. Positive Feedback i. Rare ii. EX: Birth & suckling VIII. Endocrine Organs a. Hypothalamus b. Pineal gland c. Anterior pituitary gland d. Posterior pituitary gland e. Thyroid Gland f. Parathyroid glands g. Thymus h. Adrenal Gland i. Pancreas j. Ovary k. Testes IX. Control of ES by NS a. Hypothalamus Master Gland b. Neurons in hypothalamus secrete neurohormones that are secreted into the blood) c. Some neurohormone producing neurons have axons that travel to the posterior pituitary (Neurohypophysis) gland i. Neurohormones stored in posterior pituitary gland 1. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) --Vasopressin a. Conserve water b. RAA system 1. responds to decreased Na+, & dehydration 2.2....
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This note was uploaded on 04/20/2008 for the course BIO 130 taught by Professor Rapps during the Spring '06 term at Carroll WI.

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ENDOCRINOLOGY[1] - ENDOCRINE SYSTEM I. Functions a....

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