NERVOUS_SYSTEM lecture notes

NERVOUS_SYSTEM lecture notes - NERVOUS SYSTEM I Functions a...

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NERVOUS SYSTEM I. Functions a. Sensory i. ii. Sensory cells send signals (in form of a nerve impulse) to brain b. Integrative i. ii. Once receive impulse “decide” what action should be done iii. Store info (memory) c. Motor i. Nerve impulses carried from integrative centers (CNS) to effectors ii. Direct effectors to take some action II. Parts of Nervous system a. Central nervous system (CNS) i. b. Peripheral nervous system (PNS) i. 1. cranial nerves a. 12 prs b. 2. spinal nerves a. 31 prs b. c. subunits: i. afferent (sensory) 1. impulses toward CNS ii. efferent (motor) 1. impulses away from CNS ii. Further divisions of the PNS 1. somatic nervous system a. voluntary—conscious control b. 2. autonomic nervous system (ANS) a. involuntary b. c. divisions of ANS: i. sympathetic n.s. (SNS) ii. parasympathetic n.s. (PSNS) III. Flow chart of Nervous system a. See diagram drawn in lecture 11-5-07 lecture IV. Cells of the Nervous system a. Neurons- do not undergo mitosis, especially for us… what you’re born, is what you will have for the rest of your life i. Characteristics 1. longevity a. b. live 100 years 2. amitotic a. unable to undergo mitosis
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mature neurons cannot replace themselves c. damages dendrites can be replaced 3. high metabolic rate- therefore they require constant supply of glucose i. skipping a meal… what do u notice… you’re tired, your mental abilities start to decline b/c ur glucose levels start going down b. only food is glucose c. survive only minutes w/o O2 ii. Anatomy 1. cell body a. also called Soma or perikaryon (contains nucleus) b. Contains: i. Nucleus, nucleolus, cytoplasm, organelles & Nissl bodies (dark ii. Note: no centrioles! 1. what are these used for? Mitosis!!! Since they dnt undergo mitosis, they aren’t needed c. Location i. In CNS (contains brain and spinal cord)—protected by cranium & vertebrae d. Terms i. Nucleus=group of cell bodies in CNS ii. Ganglion=group of cell bodies outside the CNS… in PNS (peripheral nervous system) Vesicles contain ACH neurotransmitter 2. processes (dendrites to AXON) not the other way around!! a. dendrites i. ii. may be 1 or many b. axon i. carry nerve impulses away from cell body ii. only 1 per neuron iii. can be as long as 3-4 feet iv. longest cells in the body c. terms i. tract=bundle of fibers in the CNS ii. nerve=bundle of fibers in the PNS 3. other structures a. axon hillock i. b. collaterals i. perpendicular branches off axon c. telodendria i. branches at end of axon ii. one neuron may have 10,000 d. synaptic knobs i. AKA: boutons or synaptic terminals ii. Located at ends of telodendria
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NERVOUS_SYSTEM lecture notes - NERVOUS SYSTEM I Functions a...

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