Histology notes

Histology notes - PHS 235 Unit 1: Organization of the Body...

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PHS 235 Unit 1: Organization of the Body CHAPTER 5: HISTOLOGY A. Types and origins of tissues; cell junctions Tissue : a group of similar cells that function together to carry out specialized activities. Histology : the science that deals with the study of tissues. What are the four basic types? Basic functions? 1. Epithelial tissue : covers body surfaces, lines body cavities, hollow organs, and ducts, and forms glands 2. Connective tissue : protects and supports the body and organs, binds organs together, stores energy reserves, and provides immunity 3. Muscular tissue : generates force 4. Nervous tissue : detects changes, initiates and transmits nerve impulses, coordinates body activities What are cell junctions? Types? Cell junction : the contact points between plasma membranes of tissue cells. Types of cell junctions include: 1. Tight junctions : form fluid-tight seals between cells e.g. stomach 2. Adherens junctions : help resist separation during various contractile activities; e.g. intestines 3. Desmosomes : form spot-weld-like junctions e.g. epidermis 4. Hemidesmosomes : anchor cells to the basement membrane 5. Gap junctions : permit electrical and chemical signals to pass between cells B. Epithelial tissue What are the two major types of epithelial tissue? 1. Covering and lining epithelium 2. Glandular epithelium What are the general features of epithelial tissue? Page 1 of 6
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PHS 235 Unit 1: Organization of the Body CHAPTER 5: HISTOLOGY Consist largely or entirely of closely packed cells with little extracellular material between them Have a free (apical) surface, and a basement membrane, which is composed of mostly fibers Are avascular Have a nerve supply High capacity for renewal by cell division What is the structure, location, and function of each type of epithelium? 1. Covering and lining epithelium : composed of four basic types of simple i) squamous : thin, flat cells, resemble tile; function in filtration, diffusion, and secretion; e.g. alveoli in lungs, ii) cuboidal : basically square, are as tall as wide, function in secretion and absorption; e.g. kidney tubules, ducts of glands iii) columnar : rectangular, cells are taller than wide, apical surface is specialized for secretion and absorption; e.g. goblet cells secrete mucous in the gi tract, ciliated, located in the fallopian tubes iv) pseudostratified ciliated columnar : one single layer of rectangular cells with cilia found on the apical border; e.g. fallopian (uterine) tubes
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This note was uploaded on 04/20/2008 for the course BIO 130 taught by Professor Rapps during the Spring '06 term at Carroll WI.

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Histology notes - PHS 235 Unit 1: Organization of the Body...

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